Religion in Indonesia
|Part of a series on the|
Indonesia is officially a republic with a compromise made between the ideas of an Islamic state and a secular state. Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population and the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation Pancasila requires its citizens to "believe in the one and only God". Consequently, atheists in Indonesia experience official discrimination in the context of registration of births and marriages and the issuance of identity cards. In addition, the Aceh province officially enforces the Sharia law and is notorious for its discriminatory practices towards religious and sexual minorities. There are also pro-Sharia movements in other parts of the country with overwhelming Muslim majorities.
A number of different religions are practised in the country, and their collective influence on the country's political, economic and cultural life is significant. The Indonesian Constitution guarantees freedom of religion. However, the government recognises only six official religions: Islam, Protestant Christianity, Roman Catholic Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism and Confucianism. According to the Decision of the Constitutional Court of Indonesia (Mahkamah Konstitusi) of 7 November 2017, the branches of beliefs (Indonesian: aliran kepercayaan), or ethnic religions, must be recognized and included in an Indonesian identity card. Based on data collected by the Indonesian Conference on Religion and Peace (ICRP), there are about 245 unofficial religions in Indonesia.
Indonesian law requires that every citizen hold an identity card that identifies that person with one of these six religions, but citizens are able to leave that section blank. Indonesia does not recognise agnosticism or atheism, and blasphemy is illegal. In the 2010 Indonesian census, 87.18% of Indonesians identified themselves as Muslim (with Sunnis about 99%, Shias about 1% and Ahmadis 0.2%), 7% Protestant Christian, 2.91% Catholic Christian, 1.69% Hindu, 0.72% Buddhist, 0.05% Confucianist, 0.13% other, and 0.38% unstated or not asked.
Indonesia's political leadership has played an important role in the relations between groups, both positively and negatively, promoting mutual respect by affirming Pancasila but also promoting a Transmigration Program, which has caused a number of conflicts in the eastern region of the country.
- 1 History
- 2 State recognised religions
- 3 Indigenous religions
- 4 Other religions, beliefs, and atheism
- 5 Interfaith relations
- 6 Census data regarding religion
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Historically, immigration from India, China, Portugal, Arabia, and the Netherlands has been a major contributor to the diversity of religion and culture within the country. However, these aspects have changed since some modifications have been made to suit the Indonesian culture.
Prior to the arrival of the Abrahamic faiths of Islam, Christianity and Judaism, the popular religions in the region were thoroughly influenced by Dharmic religious philosophy through Hinduism and Buddhism. These religions were brought to Indonesia around the 2nd and 4th centuries, respectively, when Indian traders arrived on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Sulawesi, bringing their religion. Hinduism of Shaivite traditions started to develop in Java in the fifth century AD. The traders also established Buddhism in Indonesia which developed further in the following century and a number of Hindu and Buddhist influenced kingdoms were established, such as Kutai, Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Sailendra. The world's largest Buddhist monument, Borobudur, was built by the Kingdom of Sailendra and around the same time, the Hindu monument Prambanan was also built. The peak of Hindu-Javanese civilisation was the Majapahit Empire in the fourteenth century, described as a golden age in Indonesian history.
Islam was introduced to Indonesia in the 13th century. Coming from Gujarat, India (some scholars propose also the Arabian and Persian theories), Islam spread through the west coast of Sumatra and then developed to the east in Java. This period also saw kingdoms established but this time with Muslim influence, namely Demak, Pajang, Mataram and Banten. By the end of the fifteenth century, 20 Islam-based kingdoms had been established, reflecting the domination of Islam in Indonesia.
Protestantism was first introduced by the Dutch in the 16th century with Calvinist and Lutheran influences. For the Dutch, economic benefit rather than religious conversion were paramount and missionary efforts avoided predominantly Muslim areas such as Java. The Dutch East India Company regulated the missionary work so it could serve its own interests and restricted it to the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago. Animist areas in eastern Indonesia, on the other hand, were the main focus Dutch conversion efforts, including Maluku, North Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, Papua and Kalimantan. Later, Christianity spread from the coastal ports of Kalimantan and missionaries arrived among the Torajans on Sulawesi. Parts of Sumatra were also targeted, most notably the Batak people, who are predominantly Protestant today.
Sukarno's Old Order period (till 1966) was the distruct between religion and the state. Significant changes in religion aspect also happened during the New Order era. Following a purported coup in 1965 officially blamed on the Communist Party of Indonesia, around 1/2 million were killed in an anti-communist purge. Following the incident, the New Order government had tried to suppress the supporters of PKI, by applying a policy that everyone must choose a religion, since PKI supporters were mostly atheists. As a result, every Indonesian citizen was required to carry personal identification cards indicating their religion. The policy resulted in a mass religion conversions, topped by conversions to Protestantism and Catholicism (Christianity). The same situation happened with Indonesians with Chinese ethnicity, who mostly were Confucianists. Because Confucianism was not one of the state recognised religions, many Chinese Indonesians were also converted to Christianity.
State recognised religions
The history of Islam in Indonesia is complex and reflects the diversity of Indonesian cultures. There is evidence of Arab Muslim traders entering Indonesia as early as the 8th century. Italian explorer Marco Polo is credited with the earliest known record of a Muslim community around 1297 AD, whom he referred to as a new community of Moorish traders in Perlak, Aceh. Over the 15th and 16th century, the spread of the religion accelerated via the missionary work of Maulana Malik Ibrahim (also known as Sunan Gresik, originally from Samarkand) in Sumatra and Java and Admiral Zheng He (also known as Cheng Ho, from China) in north Java, as well as militant campaigns led by sultans that targeted Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms and various communities, with each trying to carve out a region or island for control. Four diverse and contentious sultanates emerged in northern and southern Sumatra, west and central Java, and southern Kalimantan. The sultants declared Islam as state religion and pursued war against each other as well as the Hindus and other non-Muslim infidels.
Subsequently, Hindu, Buddhist, Confucian, animist communities and unbelievers bought peace by agreeing to pay jizya tax to a Muslim ruler, while others began adopting Islam to escape the tax. Islam in Indonesia is in many cases less meticulously practised in comparison to Islam in the Middle East region, in some regions, people continued their old beliefs and adopted a syncretic version of Islam,  while others left and concentrated as communities in islands that they could defend, for example, Hindus of western Java (the Sundanese) moved to Bali and neighbouring small islands. While this period of religious conflict and inter-Sultanate warfare was unfolding, and new power centers were attempting to consolidate regions under their control, European powers arrived. The archipelago was soon dominated by the Dutch empire, who helped prevent inter-religious conflict, and slowly began the process of excavating, preserving and understanding the archipelago's ancient Hindu and Buddhist period, particularly in Java and the western islands.
With regard to the political expansion of Islam, after the resignation of Suharto, political parties were again permitted to declare an ideology other than Pancasila. Several Muslim parties formed with Shariah as their ideology and the Crescent Star Party came in 6th place in the Indonesian legislative election, 1999. However, in the Indonesian legislative election, 2009, the Crescent Star Party ranked only 10th, while parties characterised by moderate and tolerant Islamic interpretations had more significant success, such as the Prosperous Justice Party coming in 4th with nearly 8% of total votes.
Shiism played an important role in the early period of the spread of Islam in North Sumatra and Java. Nowadays, there are approximately 1—3 million Shias-Twelvers at Sumatra, Java, Madura and Sulawesi islands, and also Shias-Ismaili in Bali, which approximates more 1% of the total Muslim population. For instance, Shias are segments of the Arab Indonesians — Hadrami. The main organization is “Ikatan Jamaah Ahlulbait Indonesia” (IJABI).
The earliest history of Ahmadi Muslims in Indonesia dates back to the summer of 1925, when roughly two decades prior to the Indonesian revolution, a missionary of the Community, Rahmat Ali, stepped on Sumatra, and established the movement with 13 devotees in Tapaktuan, in the province of Aceh. The Community has had an influential history in Indonesia's religious development, yet in modern times it has faced increasing intolerance from religious establishments in the country and physical hostilities from radical Muslim groups. In Ahmadiyya organization Jamaah Muslim Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JMAI) there are an estimated 400.000 followers, which equates to 0.2% of the total Muslim population, spread over 542 branches across the country; in contrast to independent estimates, the Ministry of Religious Affairs (Indonesia) estimates around 80.000 members.
The another, a separatist group, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, known as Gerakan Ahmadiyah-Lahore Indonesia (GAI) in Indonesia, exists at Java since 1924 and had only 708 members in the 1980s.
Protestantism is largely a result of Dutch Reformed and Lutheran missionary efforts during the country's colonial period. The Dutch Reformed Church was long at the forefront in introducing Christianity to native peoples, and was later joined by other Reformed churches that separated from it during the 19th century. The Dutch East India Company regulated the missionary work so it could serve its own interests and restricted it to the eastern part of the Indonesian archipelago. Although these two branches are the most common, a multitude of other denominations can be found elsewhere in Indonesia.
Protestants form a significant minority in some parts of the country. Statistically, 7% of the total population declared themselves Protestant in a nationwide census conducted in 2010. For example, on the island of Sulawesi, 17% of the citizens are Protestants, particularly in Tana Toraja regency in South Sulawesi province and Central Sulawesi. Furthermore, up to 65% of the ethnic Torajan population is Protestant. The Batak from North Sumatra is also one of the major Protestant groups in Indonesia, comprises around 65% out of all ethnic population. Christianity was brought by German Lutheran missionary Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen who is known as apostle to the Batak people and started the Batak Christian Protestant Church (Huria Kristen Batak Protestant).
Chinese Indonesians are also significant part of the Protestant population, scattered throughout Indonesia with the majority concentrated in major urban areas. In 2000 approximately 35% of ethnic Chinese were Christian, however there is continuous increase among the younger generation. In some parts of the country, entire villages belong to a distinct denomination, such as Adventist, International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, Lutheran, Presbyterian or Salvation Army (Bala Keselamatan) depending on the success of missionary activity.
Indonesia has 3 Protestant-majority provinces, which are West Papua, Papua and North Sulawesi, with 60%, 68% and 64% of the total population respectively. In Papua, the faith is most widely practised among the native Papuan population. In North Sulawesi, the Minahasan population centred around Manado converted to Christianity in the 19th century. Today most of the population native to North Sulawesi practice some form of Protestantism, while transmigrants from Java and Madura practice Islam. The practitioners mostly live in North Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, West Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, North Maluku, Maluku (province), West Papua (province), Papua (province).
Catholicism arrived in Indonesia during the Portuguese arrival with spice trading over the 14th and 15th century. Many Portuguese had the goal of spreading Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, starting with Moluccas (Maluku) in 1534. Between 1546 and 1547, the pioneer Christian missionary, Saint Francis Xavier, visited the islands and baptised several thousand locals. During the Dutch East Indies (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) era, the number of Roman Catholicism practitioners fell significantly, due to VOC policy to ban the religion. Hostility of the Dutch toward Catholicism is due to its history where the Protestant Dutch gained their independence after the Eighty Years War against Catholic Spain's rule. The most significant result was on the island of Flores and East Timor, where VOC concentrated. Moreover, Roman Catholic priests were sent to prisons or punished and replaced by Protestant clergy from the Netherlands. One Roman Catholic priest was executed for celebrating Mass in a prison during Jan Pieterszoon Coen's tenure as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. After the VOC collapsed and with the legalisation of Catholicism in the Netherlands starting around 1800, Dutch Catholic clergy predominated until after Indonesia's independence.
Other than Flores, Central Java also have significant numbers of Catholics. Catholicism started to spread in Central Java when Frans van Lith, a priest from The Netherlands came to Muntilan, Central Java in 1896. Initially, his effort did not produce a satisfying result, until 1904 when four Javanese chiefs from Kalibawang region asked him to give them education in the religion. On 15 December 1904, a group of 178 Javanese were baptised at Semagung, Muntilan, district Magelang, Central Java, near the border of province DI Yogyakarta.
As of 2010, 3% of all Indonesians are Catholics, near half the number of Protestants at 7%. The practitioners mostly live in West Kalimantan, Papua (province) and East Nusa Tenggara. The province of East Nusa Tenggara where the island of Flores and West Timor located is notable as the only province in Indonesia where Catholics are majority (about 54.14% of total population). In Java, next to Javanese, Catholicism also spread to Chinese Indonesian. In the present day, Catholic traditions close to Easter days remain, locally known as Semana Santa. It involves a procession carrying statues of Jesus and the Virgin Mary (locally referred to as Tuan Ana and Tuan Ma respectively) to a local beach, then to Cathedral of the Queen of the Rosary, the Roman Catholic Diocese of Larantuka, Flores.
Hindu culture and religion arrived in Indonesia around the 2nd century AD, which later produced a number of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms such as Kutai, Medang, and Majapahit. The largest Hindu temple in Indonesia Prambanan built during the Majapahit kingdom by the Sanjaya dynasty. This kingdom lived until the 16th century, when the Islamic empire began to develop, this period known as the Hindu-Indonesian period.
Hinduism in Indonesia takes on a tone distinct from other parts of the world. For instance, Hinduism in Indonesia, referred as Agama Hindu Dharma, just formally applied the caste system. It also incorporated native Austronesian elements that revered hyangs, deities and spirits of nature and deceased ancestors. The Hindu religious epics, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, are expressed in uniquely Indonesian wayang puppetry and dance. All practitioners of Agama Hindu Dharma share many common beliefs, mostly the Five Points of Philosophy: the Panca Srada. These include the belief in one Almighty God (Brahman), belief in the souls and myriad of local and ancestral spirits and karma or the belief in the law of reciprocal actions. Rather than belief in cycles of rebirth and reincarnation. In addition, the religion focuses more on art and ritual rather than scriptures, laws and beliefs.
As of 2010, the official number of Hindu practitioners was 4 million (1.7% of Indonesians), this number is disputed by the representative of Hinduism in Indonesia and may be 10 million giving Indonesia the fourth largest number of Hindus in the world. the Parisada Hindu Dharma. Of this number, the absolute majority of the practitioners are located in Bali and merged within the organization Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia. Besides Bali, Sumatra, Java, Lombok, Kalimantan and Sulawesi also have significant Hindu populations; most are Balinese who migrated to these areas through government sponsored transmigration program or urbanised Balinese attracted to cities in Java, especially the Greater Jakarta area. The Tamil Indonesians in Medan represents another important concentration of Hindus.
There are indigenous religions those are incorporated into the Hinduism (not all followers agree): Hindu Kaharingan of Dayak people; Javanese Hinduism of Tenggerese tribe; Hindu Tolotang of Bugis; and Aluk Todolo of Toraja.
There are presented also some international Hindu reform movements, e.g., International Society for Krishna Consciousness and Sathya Sai Organization, Chinmaya Mission, Brahma Kumaris, Ananda Marga, Sahaja Yoga, and Haidakhandi Samaj.
Buddhism is the second oldest religion in Indonesia, arriving around the sixth century. The history of Buddhism in Indonesia is closely related to the history of Hinduism, as a number of empires based on Buddhist culture were established around the same period. Indonesian archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful Buddhist empires such as Sailendra dynasty, Srivijaya and Mataram Empires. The arrival of Buddhism was started with the trading activity that began in the early of first century on the Silk Road between Indonesia and India. According to some Chinese source, a Chinese traveller monk on his journey to India, witnessed the powerful maritime empire of Srivijaya based on Sumatra. The empire also served as a Buddhist learning centre in the region. A number of historical heritage monuments can be found in Indonesia, including the Borobudur Temple in Yogyakarta and statues or prasasti (inscriptions) from the earlier history of Buddhist empires.
Following the downfall of President Sukarno in the mid-1960s, Pancasila was reasserted as the official Indonesian policy on religion to only recognise monotheism. As a result, founder of Perbuddhi (Indonesian Buddhists Organisation), Bhikku Ashin Jinarakkhita, proposed that there was a single supreme deity, Sanghyang Adi Buddha. He was also backed up with the history behind the Indonesian version of Buddhism in ancient Javanese texts, and the shape of the Borobudur Temple.
According to the 2010 national census, roughly 0,7% of the total citizens of Indonesia are Buddhists, which takes up about 2 million people. Most Buddhists are concentrated in Jakarta, although other provinces such as Riau, North Sumatra and West Kalimantan also have a significant number of practitioners. However, these totals are likely high, due to the fact that practitioners of Confucianism and Taoism, which are not considered official religions of Indonesia, referred to themselves as Buddhists on the census. Today, most Buddhists are to be found among Chinese Indonesians and, to a lesser extent, among Javanese and Bali people. Among the Indonesian Buddhists are all major Buddhist schools: Mahayana, Vajrayana, and Theravada. Most Chinese Indonesians follow a syncretic flow with Chinese beliefs, such as Three teachings (Tridharma) and also Yiguandao (Maytreya).
Confucianism originated in China and was brought to Indonesia by Chinese merchants, as early as the 3rd century AD. Unlike other religions, Confucianism evolved more into loose individual practices and belief in the code of conduct, rather than a well-organized community religion with a firm theology—it was more like a way of life or social movement than a religion. It was not until the early 1900s that Confucianists formed an organisation, called Khong Kauw Hwe (THHK) in Batavia (now Jakarta).
After the independence of Indonesia in 1945, Confucianism in Indonesia was affected by several political conflicts. In 1965, Sukarno issued Presidential Decree No. 1/Pn.Ps/1965, recognising that six religions are embraced by the Indonesian people, including Confucianism. In 1961, the Association of Khung Chiao Hui Indonesia (PKCHI) (now the Supreme Council for the Confucian Religion in Indonesia) had declared that Confucianism is a religion and Confucius is their prophet.
Under the New Order regime of Suharto, anti-China policy became a scapegoat method to gain political support from the masses, especially after the fall of the Indonesian Communist Party, which had allegedly been backed by China. In 1967, Suharto issued controversial Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967, which effectively banned Chinese culture, including documents printed in Chinese, expressions of Chinese belief, Chinese celebrations and festivities, and even Chinese names. However, Suharto knew that the Chinese Indonesian community had a lot of wealth and power even though it consisted of only 3% of the population.
In 1969, Statute No. 5/1969 was passed, restoring the official total of six religions. However, it was not always put into practice. In 1978, the Minister of Home Affairs issued a directive asserting there are only five religions, excluding Confucianism. On 27 January 1979, a presidential cabinet meeting decided that Confucianism is not a religion. Another Minister of Home Affairs directive in 1990 re-iterated the total of five official religions in Indonesia.
Therefore, the status of Confucianism in Indonesia in the New Order regime was never clear. De jure, there were conflicting laws, because the higher law permitted Confucianism, but the lower law did not recognise it. De facto, Confucianists were not recognised by the government and they were forced to become Christians or Buddhists to maintain their citizenship. This practice was applied in many places, including the national registration card, marriage registration, and family registration card. Civics education in Indonesia taught school children that there are only five official religions.
Following the fall of Suharto in 1998, Abdurrahman Wahid was elected as the country's fourth president. Wahid rescinded Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967 and the 1978 Minister of Home Affairs directive. Confucianism once again became officially recognised as a religion in Indonesia. Chinese culture and Chinese-affiliated activities were again permitted. However, after the implementation of Otonomi Daerah (Regional Autonomy), provinces and regencies were permitted to control their own administrative procedures. In 2014, there are again administrative districts that only permit five possible religious affiliations on the national identity card, a restriction that they have programmed into their computer databases.
A number of ancestral animistic indigenous religions (Austronesian ethnic beliefs) which dominated throughout the archipelago before entering foreign religions. Some of them still exists in some parts of Indonesia as pure or syncretic, namely religions:
- Batak Parmalim
- Bugis Tolotang
- Dayak Kaharingan
- Javanese Kejawèn
- Karo Pemena
- Malaysian folk religion
- Manusela Naurus
- Sumbese Marapu
- Sundanese Wiwitan
- Toraja Aluk Todolo, and others.
The non-official number of ethnic believers is up to 20 million. The government of Indonesia often views indigenous beliefs as adat (custom) rather that agama (religion) or as a variant of a recognised religion. Because the government did not recognise animism indigenous tribal belief systems as official religion, as a result followers of various native animistic religions such as Dayak Kaharingan have identified themselves as Hindu to avoid pressure to convert to Islam or Christianity. Several native tribal beliefs such as Sunda Wiwitan, Toraja Aluk Todolo, and Batak Parmalim — although different from Indian influenced Balinese Hinduism — might seek affiliation with Hinduism to survive, while at the same time also preserving their distinction from mainstream Indonesian Hinduism dominated by Balinese. In many cases, some of the followers of these native beliefs might convert to Christianity or Islam, at least registered as such on their Indonesian identity card (KTP), but still uphold and perform their native beliefs.
However, the branches of beliefs (Indonesian: aliran kepercayaan) (native religions) Indonesia are already also partly recognized according to the Decision of the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) dated 7 November 2017 No. 97/PUU-XIV/2016, ruled that the Law which requires for people whose “religion is not recognized” or followers of indigenous religions (“Believers of the Faith”) leave blank the religion column on identity documents, is contrary to the constitution.
Kejawèn (Javanese beliefs)
Kejawèn (Javanese beliefs) or Kebatinan is an amalgam of animism, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic — especially Sufi — beliefs. The beliefs is rooted in Javanese history and spiritualism with the tendency to syncretise aspects of different religions in search of the common ground. Kejawèn is generally characterised as mystical, and some varieties were concerned with spiritual self-control. Although there were many varieties circulating in 1992, Kejawèn often implies pantheistic worship because it encourages sacrifices and devotions to local and ancestral spirits. These spirits are believed to inhabit natural objects, human beings, artefacts, and grave sites of important wali (Muslim saints). Illness and other misfortunes are traced to such spirits, and if sacrifices or pilgrimages fail to placate angry deities, the advice of a dukun or healer is sought. Kejawèn, while it connotes a turning away from the militant universalism of orthodox Islam, moves toward a more internalised universalism. In this way, Kebatinan moves toward eliminating the distinction between the universal and the local, the communal and the individual.
The Kejawèn have no certain prophet, sacred book, nor distinct religious festivals and rituals; it has more to do with each adherents internalised transcendental vision and beliefs in their relations with others and with the supreme being. As the result there is an inclusiveness that the kebatinan believer could identify themselves with one of six officially recognised religions, at least in their identity card, while still subscribe to their kebatinan belief and way of life. This loosely organised current of thought and practice was legitimised in the 1945 constitution and, in 1973, when it was recognised as Kepercayaan kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa (Indonesian: Believer of One Supreme God) that somewhat gain the status as one of the agama, President Suharto counted himself as one of its adherents.
Subud is an international spiritual movement that began in Indonesia in the 1920s as a movement related to Sufism and Javanese beliefs founded by Muhammad Subuh Sumohadiwidjojo. (The name Subud was first used in the late 1940s when Subud was legally registered in Indonesia.) The basis of Subud is a spiritual exercise commonly referred to as the latihan kejiwaan, which was said by Muhammad Subuh to be guidance from "the Power of God" or "the Great Life Force".
Muhammad Subuh saw the present age as one that demands personal evidence and proof of religious or spiritual realities, as people no longer just believe in words. He claimed that Subud is not a new teaching or religion but only that the latihan kejiwaan itself is the kind of proof that humanity is looking for. There are now Subud groups in about 83 countries, with a worldwide membership of about 10.000.
A dukun is a Malay term for shaman. Their societal role is that of a traditional healer, spirit medium, custom and tradition experts and on occasion sorcerers and masters of black magic. In common usage, the dukun is often confused with another type of shaman, the pawang. It is often mistranslated into English as "witch-doctor" or "medicine man". Many self-styled dukun in Indonesia are simply scammers and criminals, preying on gullible and superstitious people who were raised to believe in the supernatural.
Other religions, beliefs, and atheism
The early Sephardi Jews establishment in the archipelago came from Portugal and Spain in the 17th century. In the 1850s, about 20 Jewish families of Dutch and German origins lived in Jakarta (then Batavia). Some lived in Semarang and Surabaya. Several Baghdadi Jews also settled in the island. Prior to 1945, there were about 2.000 Dutch Jews in Indonesia. Some Jews even converted to Christianity or Islam during the Japanese Occupation, when Jews were sent to internment camps, and the War of Independence, when Eurasians were targeted. In 1957, it was reported around 450 Jews remained, mainly Ashkenazim in Jakarta and Sephardim in Surabaya. The community decreased to 50 in 1963. In 1997, there were only 20 Jews, some of them in Jakarta and a few Baghdadi families in Surabaya.
Jews in Surabaya maintained a synagogue for many years, with sporadic support from relatives and co-religionists residing in Singapore. Beth Shalom closed in 2009 after radical groups protested against Israel's assault on the Gaza War (2008–09). Soon afterward, it was designated a heritage site by the Surabaya government, but it was demolished in May 2013 without warning, as part of a mysterious real estate deal.
Since 2003, "Shaar Hashamayim" synagogue has been serving the local Jewish community of some 20 people in Tondano city, North Sulawesi, which is attended by around 10 Orthodox Jews (Hasidic Chabad group). Currently it is the only synagogue in Indonesia that provides services.
The organization "The United Indonesian Jewish Community" (UIJC) has been formed since 2009 and inaugurated in October 2010. In 2015, the first official Jewish center, "Beit Torat Chaim", was inaugurated by the Religious Affairs Ministry of the Indonesian government. It is located in Jakarta and will be led by Rabbi Tovia Singer.
Indonesia's Bahais are subject to a measure of government discrimination. Since 2014, the situation has improved in the plans of the government for the possible recognition of this new religion (there is an erroneous opinion on already held the official recognition of the Bahai in 2014).
Sikhs migration to Indonesia began in the 1870s (guardians and traders). There are several gurdwaras and schools in Sumatra and Java, for example, in Medan was built in 1911. In 2015 was founded “Supreme Council for the Sikh Religion in Indonesia”. Apart from the orthodox Sikhism in Indonesia represented the Sikh reformist movement Radha Soami Satsang Beas (RSSB).
Numbering about 7.000 (or between 10.000 and 15.000), Sikhs are not included in the six religions recognized in the state, that's why filling in the religion column on their card KTP with the word “Hindu”.
Chinese folk religion
New religious movements
The most famous of the new religious movements in Indonesia are Theosophical Society, Transcendental Meditation movement, Falun Gong, and originated in Indonesia Eden community (Jamaah Alamulla).
Although there is no specific law that bans atheism, legal cases in which atheists have been charged with blasphemy for publicly expressing atheist points of view have raised the issue of whether it is de facto illegal to do so according to Pancasila, the state ideology. Some clerics invoke first Pancasila principle to argue that it is indeed illegal, while legal scholars say that that principle was adopted as a compromise between secular nationalist, Muslim and non-Muslim founding fathers, and not intended to ban atheism. Nonetheless, atheists as a group tend not to express their atheism publicly for fear of prosecution.
In 2012, atheist civil servant Alexander Aan was sentenced to thirty months in prison for writing "God doesn't exist" on his Facebook page and sharing explicit material about the Prophet Muhammad online, sparking nationwide debate. Alexander's lawyers speculated that there were only 2,000 or so atheists in Indonesia, but stated that it was difficult to estimate due to the threat of imprisonment for open atheism.
Although the Indonesian government recognises a number of different religions, inter-religious conflicts have occurred. In the New Order era, former President Suharto proposed the Anti-Chinese law which prohibits anything related to Chinese culture, including names and religions. Between 1966 and 1998, Suharto made an effort to "de-Islamicise" the government, by maintaining a large proportion of Christians in his cabinet. However, in the early 1990s, the issue of Islamisation appeared, and the military split into two groups, the Nationalist and Islamic camps. The Islamic camp, led by General Prabowo Subianto, was in favour of Islamisation, while General Wiranto was in the Nationalist group, in favour of a secular state. 
During the Suharto era, the Indonesian transmigration program continued, after it was initiated by the Dutch East Indies government in the early nineteenth century. The intention of the program was to move millions of Indonesians from over-crowded populated Java, Bali and Madura to other less populated regions, such as Ambon, Lesser Sunda Islands and Papua. It has received much criticism, being described as a type of colonisation by the Javanese and Madurese, who also brought Islam to non-Muslim areas. Citizens in western Indonesia are mostly Muslims with Christians a small minority, while in eastern regions the Christian populations are similar in size or larger than Muslim populations. This more even population distribution has led to more religious conflicts in the eastern regions, including Poso riots and Maluku sectarian conflict communal violence since the resignation of President Suharto.
The government has made an effort to reduce the tension by proposing the inter-religion co-operation plan. The Foreign Ministry, along with the biggest Islamic organisation in Indonesia, Nahdatul Ulama, held the International Conference of Islamic Scholars, to promote Islamic moderation, which is believed to reduce the tension in the country. On 6 December 2004, the "Dialogue On Interfaith Cooperation: Community Building and Harmony" conference was opened. The conference, attended by ASEAN countries, Australia, East Timor, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea was intended to discuss possible co-operation between different religious groups to minimise inter-religious conflict in Indonesia.
Nevertheless, the 2010 report to the United States Congress by the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom noted attacks against the Shia communities in Indonesia, particularly in East Java and Madura in 2007–2012. In one incident in Madura, local villagers surrounded Shia houses and demanded they desist religious activities, but the crowd was dispersed by local leaders and clergy.
On the issue of Ahmadiyyah Muslim community, Indonesia has failed to act and uphold their human rights. Several Ahmadi mosques were burnt in 2008. 126 Ahmadis have become refugees within their own country in the four years prior to 2012.
There is however, indications that religious conflicts regarding erection of place of worships have more to do with business interest than in religious issues. For example, dispute over a Bethel Injil Sepenuh Church (GBIS) in Jakarta was due to land dispute dating back to 1957, while the Indonesia Christian Church (GKI) Taman Yasmin dispute in Bogor was due to municipal government plan to turn the church's area into business district. The Taman Yasmin Church in Bogor has been upheld and protected by Supreme Court of Indonesia, but the mayor of Bogor refused to comply the court ruling.
Positive form of relations have also appeared in the society, such as the effort from six different religious organisations to help the 2004 Tsunami victims. In 2011 has was established the interfaith “Indonesia Sunni and Shia Council” (MUHSIN)."RI Sunni-Shia Council established". The Jakarta Post. 21 May 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
Census data regarding religion
Religion was a census variable in the 1961, 1971, 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010 Indonesian census and in various intercensal surveys. Due to deemed divisiveness, 1961 census data regarding religion was not published. In 1971, three groups of Christians were recorded: Catholic, Protestant and other. The U.N. Demographic Yearbook 1979 only lists data collectively for all Christians. In 2000 census, only Catholics and Protestants were available as categories.
Note: the drop in the Catholic population between 1990 and 2000 was due to the secession of East Timor in 1999.
Religious Composition by ethnic group (2010 Census)
"Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut" [Population by Region and Religion] (in Indonesian). Jakarta, Indonesia: Badan Pusat Statistik. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
Religion is belief in Almighty God that must be possessed by every human being. Religion can be divided into Muslim, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist, Hu Khong Chu, and Other Religion.Muslim 207176162 (87.18%), Christian 16528513 (6.96), Catholic 6907873 (2.91), Hindu 4012116 (1.69), Buddhist 1703254 (0.72), Confucianism 117091 (0.05), Other 299617 (0.13), Not Stated 139582 (0.06), Not Asked 757118 (0.32), Total 237641326
- Intan 2006, p. 40.
- Seo 2013, p. 44.
- Hosen 2005, pp. 419–440.
- Frederick, William H.; Worden, Robert L., eds. (1993). Indonesia: A Country Study. Chapter Islam.
- Gross 2016, p. 1.
- Lindsey; Pausacker 1995.
- Intan 2006, p. 18.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2008. Indonesia". US Department of State. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Pringle 2010, pp. 154–155.
- Buehler 2016.
- Federspiel 1970; Sidel 2006; Solahudin 2013; Buehler 2016; Baskara 2017.
- "The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia". Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
- Hosen 2005, pp. 419–440; Shah 2017; Marshall 2018, pp. 85–96.
- Sutanto, Trisno S. (26 April 2018). "The Decolonization of Adat Communities: Notes from PGI's 2018 Seminar on Religions". Center for religions and cross-cultural studies Graduate School, Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- Marshall 2018, pp. 85–96.
- Aritonang, Margareth S. (7 November 2014). "Government to recognize minority faiths". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2 October 2006.
- "Report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights" (PDF). Retrieved 25 May 2017.
- "Sunni and Shia Muslims". Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Atjeh 1977.
- Lindsey, Pausacker 1995, p. 271.
- "Transmigration". Prevent Conflict. April 2002. Retrieved 13 October 2006.
- Shaw, Elliott, ed. (28 November 2016). "Indonesian Religions". PHILTAR, Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. Retrieved 2 March 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- Kinney; Klokke; Kieven 2003; Levenda 2011; Domenig 2014; Sukamto 2018.
- Azra 2006, pp. 10–25.
- Azra 2006; Husain 2017; Laffan 2011; Pringle 2010; Ricklefs 2006; Ricklefs 2007; Ricklefs 2012.
- Boelaars 1991.
- Aritonang, Steenbrink 2008.
- Encyclopedia of Protestantism: 4-volume Set by Hans J. Hillerbrand, Routledge, chapter on Indonesia, p. 824
- Goh 2005, p. 80.
- Intan 2006, pp. 44–50.
- Geertz 1972, pp. 62–84.
- Bertrand 2004, pp. 34–104.
- Martin, Richard C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Vol. 2: M–Z. Macmillan.
- Laffan 2011, pp. 3–6.
- Morgan, David; Reid, Anthony. The New Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 3: The Eastern Islamic World. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1107456976, pp 587–89.
- Geertz 1960; Headley 2004; Hefner 1989; Muhaimin 2006; Picard; Madinier 2011, pp. 71–93; Ricklefs 2006.
- Fox 1996.
- Taylor, Jean Gelman. Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0300105186, pp. 21–83, 142–73
- Mehden 1995.
- Husain 2017.
- Hasan 2007; Solahudin 2013; Hauser-Schäublin; Harnish 2014, pp. 144–61; Baskara 2017.
- Kraus 1997, pp. 169–89; Howell 2001, pp. 701–29; Sidel 2006; Laffan 2011.
- Abuza 2007; Bertrand 2004; Buehler 2016; Federspiel 1970; Gross 2016; Lidde 1996, pp. 613–34; Pringle 2010.
- Zulkifli 2011.
- Ida 2016, pp. 194–215.
- Jacobsen, Frode (2009). Hadrami Arabs in Present-day Indonesia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-0-415-48092-5.
- Zulkifli 2011, p. 197.
- Burhani 2014, pp. 143–44.
- Rahman 2014, pp. 418–20.
- Cooley 1968.
- Aritonang; Steenbrink 2008.
- cf. Frederick; Worden. (1993). Chapter Christianity.
- cf. Encyclopedia of Protestantism, p. 824
- "Indonesia — (Asia)". Reformed Online. Retrieved 7 October 2006.
- Rodgers 1981.
- cf. Encyclopedia of Protestantism, p. 337
- Steenbrink 2003.
- Steenbrink 2007.
- Steenbrink 2015.
- Delaney, Brigid (29 March 2018). "Good Friday in Flores: secrets, stamina and spiritual devotion". The Guardian. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- Kinney; Klokke; Kieven 2003, pp. 17–20; Levenda 2011; Domenig 2014.
- cf. Frederick; Worden. (1993). Chapter Hinduism.
- Lansing 1987, pp. 45–49.
- Howe 2001.
- Belo 1960; Fox 2011; Geertz 1973; Goris 1931; Hooykaas 1974; Howe 2001; Lansing 1987, pp. 45–49; McDaniel 2010, pp. 93–111; Pedersen 2006; Ramstedt 2004; Stuart-Fox 2002; Swellengrebel 1960; Swellengrebel 1969.
- Metcalf 1987; Rousseau 1998; Schärer 1963; Winzeler 1993.
- Hefner 1989.
- Matthes 1872; Pelras 1987, pp. 560–61.
- Budiman 2013; Nooy-Palm 1979; Nooy-Palm 1986; Nooy-Palm 1987, pp. 565–67.
- Popov 2017, pp. 78–82.
- cf. Frederick; Worden. (1993). Chapter Buddhism.
- Kimura 2003, pp. 53–72.
- Brown 1987, pp. 108–17; Brown 1990; Cheu 1999; Hauser-Schäublin; Harnish 2014, pp. 84–112; Kimura 2003, pp. 53–72; Syryadinata 2005, pp. 77–94.
- Cheu 1999.
- Syryadinata 2005, pp. 77–94.
- Chambert-Loir 2015, pp. 67–107.
- Yang 2005.
- Budiman 2013; Ensiklopedi kepercayaan 2006; Geertz 1960; Koentjaraningrat 1987, pp. 559–63; Maria; Limbeng 2007; Matthes 1872; Metcalf 1987, pp. 290–92; Nooy-Palm 1979; Nooy-Palm 1986; Pelras 1987, pp. 560–61; Popov 2017, pp. 96–104; Rodgers 1981; Rodgers 1987, pp. 81–83; Rousseau 1998; Schärer 1963; Winzeler 1993.
- Schiller 1996, pp. 409–17.
- Beatty 1999; Epton 1974; Geertz 1960; Koentjaraningrat 1987, pp. 559–63; Kroef 1961, pp. 18–25; Mulder 1998; Stange 1980.
- Geertz 1960.
- Kroef 1961, pp. 18–25; Stange 1980; Geels 1997.
- Rofe 1959; Kroef 1961, pp. 18–25; Geels 1997.
- Hunt, Stephen J. (2003). Alternative Religions: A Sociological Introduction. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-7546-3410-2.
- Benda; Castles 1969, pp. 207-40.
- Epton 1974; Sievers 1974; Winzeler 1993.
- Popov 2017, p. 109.
- Klemperer-Markman, Ayala. "The Jewish Community of Indonesia". Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot. Retrieved 15 December 2006.
- Onishi, Norimitsu (22 November 2010). "In Sliver of Indonesia, Public Embrace of Judaism". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
- Serebryanski, Yossi (28 August 2015). "Jews of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea". The Jewish Press. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- "Most Baha'i Nations (2005)". The ARDA Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "USCIRF Annual Report 2016 — Tier 2 countries — Indonesia". Refworld.org. US Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2 May 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
- "Agama Baha'i Bukan Sekte Dalam Islam [Bahá'í Faith is not Islam Sect]". ANTARA News (in Indonesian). 6 November 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2019.
- Nurish, Amanah (8 August 2014). "Welcoming Baha'i: New official religion in Indonesia". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Pedersen, Lene (2016). "Religious Pluralism in Indonesia". The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology. 17 (5: Special Issue: Communal Peace and Conflict in Indonesia: Navigating Inter–religious Boundaries): 387–98. doi:10.1080/14442213.2016.1218534.
- Popov 2017, pp. 110–111.
- Kahlon 2016.
- Popov 2017, p. 108.
- Popov 2017, p. 112–113.
- Popov 2017, p. 81.
- Popov 2017, p. 103–104.
- Osman, Salim (7 February 2012). "Is Atheism illegal in Indonesia?". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
- "Row over Indonesia atheist Facebook post". BBC News. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Indonesian Atheist Jailed for Prophet Mohammed Cartoons". Jakarta Globe. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Syofiardi Bachyul Jb (14 June 2012). "'Minang atheist' sentenced to 2.5 years in prison". The Jakarta Post. Archived from the original on 16 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Hodal, Kate (3 May 2012). "Indonesia's atheists face battle for religious freedom". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Lidde 1996, pp. 613–634.
- Lindsey; Pausacker 1995; Bertrand 2004, pp. 34–104; Pringle 2010, pp. 143–57; Crouch 2013; Duncan 2013.
- "Transcript of Joint Press Conference Indonesian Foreign Minister, Hassan Wirajuda, with Australian Foreign Minister, Alexander Downer" (Press release). Embassy of Republic of Indonesia at Canberra, Australia. 6 December 2004. Retrieved 14 October 2006.
- "Business interests blamed for church rows". The Jakarta Post. 24 August 2011.
- Holtz, Michael (24 August 2011). "Indonesian mayor seeks to ban church construction". Associated Press.
- Suryadinata, Leo; Arifin, Evi Nurvidya; Ananta, Aris (2003). Indonesia's population: ethnicity and religion in a changing political landscape. Indonesia's population. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 103–104. ISBN 978-981-230-218-2.
- Demographic Yearbook 1979 (Population census statistics) (PDF) (31 ed.). New York: United Nations. 1980. p. 641 Table 29. Population by religion, sex and urban/rural residence: each census, 1970–1979. ISBN 978-0-8002-2882-8. OCLC 16991809.
C.I.C.R.E.D. cites SUSENAS TAHAP KEEMPAT – Sifat Demografi Penduduk Indonesia [National Survey of Social and Economic Fourth Round – Demographic Characteristics of the Population]. Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Bureau of Statistics). 1969. for Table III.10 of "The Population of Indonesia, 1974 World Population Year", p. 31. However, due to inaccessibility of the data source for verification and data collection proximity to census year 1971, referenced 1969 data is not included in this article's table. The Population of Indonesia, 1974 World Population Year (PDF). C.I.C.R.E.D. 2. Jakarta: Lembaga Demografi (Demographic Institute), Universitas Indonesia. 1973. pp. 31–32. LCCN 77366078. OCLC 3362457. OL 4602999M.
The statistical data on religion show that Islam has the highest percentage of adherents with about 87.1 per cent of the population of Indonesia (National Socio Economic Survey, 1969). The second biggest religion in Indonesia is Protestant (5.2%), while Catholic is the third (2.5%). The rest are Hindu (2.0%) and Buddhist (1.1%) and other religions which are not included in the above classification.
- Aritonang; Steenbrink 2008, p. 216.
- Unable to find online data for Sensus Penduduk 1980 (Penduduk Indonesia: hasil sensus penduduk. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik, 1980). Unable to find online version of Buku Saku Statistik Indonesia 1982 [Statistical Pocketbook Of Indonesia 1982]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Biro Pusat Statistik. 1983. OCLC 72673205., which contains 1980 census data.
- Cholil, Suhadi; Bagir, Zainal Abidin; Rahayu, Mustaghfiroh; Asyhari, Budi (August 2010). Annual Report on Religious Life in Indonesia 2009 (PDF). Max M. Richter, Ivana Prazic. Yogyakarta: Center for Religious & Cross-cultural Studies, Gadjah Mada University. p. 15. ISBN 978-602-96257-1-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012.. Cites BPS-Statistics Indonesia for intercensal population survey 1985, census 1990, census 2000, and intercensal population survey 2005
Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (2001). A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1200 (3d ed.). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. p. 379. ISBN 978-0-8047-4480-5.
The 1990 census recorded 156.3 million Muslims in Indonesia, 87.2 per cent of the population and the largest Muslim population of any nation in the world. This was a steady percentage, having been 87.1 per cent in 1980. Christians (Catholics and Protestants) totalled 17.2 million, 9.6 per cent of the population, whereas in 1971 the figure was 7.5 per cent and in 1980 it was 8.8 per cent. So Christianity was still growing. In the large cities of Central Java in particular, Christians constituted nearly 20 per cent of the population. The rising tide of religiosity was also reflected in the much smaller communities of Hindus (3.3 million, 1.8 per cent of the population in 1990) and Buddhists (1.8 million, 1.0 per cent of the population).
- The 1990 census recorded 87.21% Muslims, 6.04% Protestants, 3.58% Catholics, 1.83% Hindus, 1.03% Buddhists and 0.31% as "Others". Population of Indonesia: Results of the 1990 Population (Jakarta: Biro Pusat Statistik, 1992), p. 24, as cited by
- Intan 2006, p. 6.
- "Special Census Topic 2000 Round (1995–2004)". Demographic Yearbook (Spreadsheet). New York: United Nations. 2b – Ethnocultural characteristics. 30 June 2006. ISSN 0082-8041. OCLC 173373970.
"Indonesia". The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. 18 October 2011. People and Society. ISSN 1553-8133. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
Muslim 86.1%, Protestant 5.7%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 1.8%, other or unspecified 3.4% (2000 census)
In 1979, Soeharto retracted official recognition of Confucianism. Hence Confucianism appears in the 1971 census data, but not in 1980 or 1990. In 2000, Indonesia decided to separately categorize Confucianism only during the enumeration process, but did not actually list this option on the printed form. This is not listed as a separate category in the U.N. data. Utomo, Ariane J. (March 2003). "Indonesian Census 2000: Tables and Reports for AusAID Explanatory Notes" (PDF). Prof. Terence H. Hull. The Australian National University: 7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012.
The six categories for religion were Islam, Catholicism, Protestant, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Other. The decision to have a separate category for Confucianism (Kong Hu Cu) occurred during the enumeration process itself, hence it was not printed in the actual form of the L1. The data on the number of Confucians is only available for certain provinces. However, the number seems much smaller than expected due to the abrupt process of including it in the questionnaire.
- Totals and lefthand column per year are in millions of persons.
- Aris Ananta, Evi Nurvidya Arifin, M Sairi Hasbullah, Nur Budi Handayani, Agus Pramono. Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Singapore: ISEAS: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2015. P. 273.
- Abuza, Zachary (2007). Political Islam and Violence in Indonesia. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-39401-7.
- Aritonang, Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel, eds. (2008). A History of Christianity in Indonesia. Leiden; Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1.
- Atjeh, Aboebakar (1977). Aliran Syiah di Nusantara (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Islamic Research Institute.
- Azra, Azyumardi (2006). Islam in the Indonesian World: An Account of Institutional Formation. Bandung: Mizan Pustaka. ISBN 978-979-433-430-0.
- Bakker, Frederik Lambertus (1993). The Struggle of the Hindu Balinese Intellectuals: Developments in Modern Hindu Thinking in Independent Indonesia. Amsterdam: VU University Press. ISBN 978-9053832219.
- Baskara, Benny (2017). "Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements". DINIKA: Academic Journal of Islamic Studies. 2 (1). doi:10.22515/dinika.v2i1.10 (inactive 19 August 2019). ISSN 2503-4219.
- Beatty, Andrew (1999). Varieties of Javanese Religion: An Anthropological Account. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-62444-2.
- Belo, Jane (1960). Trance in Bali. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Benda, Harry J.; Castles, Lance (1969). "The Samin Movement". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde / Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences of Southeast Asia. 125 (2): 207–40. doi:10.1163/22134379-90002844. ISSN 2213-4379.
- Bertrand, Jaques (2004). Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict in Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52441-4. OCLC 237830260.
- Boelaars, Huub J. W. M. (1991). Indonesianisasi, Het omvormingsproces van de katholieke kerk in Indonesië tot de Indonesische katholieke kerk (in Dutch). J.H. Kok. ISBN 978-9024268023.
- Brown, Iem (1987). "Contemporary Indonesian Buddhism and Monotheism". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 18 (1): 108–17. doi:10.1017/S0022463400001284.
- ——— (1990). "Agama Buddha Maitreya: A Modern Buddhist Sect in Indonesia". Southeast Asian Anthropology (9).
- Budiman, Michaela (2013). Contemporary Funeral Rituals of Sa'dan Toraja: From Aluk Todolo to "New" Religions. Prague: Charles University in Prague. ISBN 978-80-246-2228-6.
- Buehler, Michael (2016). The Politics of Shari'a Law: Islamist Activist and the State in Democratizing Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-13022-7.
- Burhani, Ahmad Najib (2014). "The Ahmadiyya and the Study of Comparative Religion in Indonesia: Controversies and Influences" (PDF). Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations. 25 (2): 141–58. doi:10.1080/09596410.2013.864191.
- Chambert-Loir, Henri (April 2015). "Confucius Crosses the South Seas". Indonesia. Southeast Asia Program Publications at Cornell University. 99 (99): 67–107. doi:10.5728/indonesia.99.0067. ISSN 2164-8654.
- Cheu, Hock Tong (1999). Chinese Beliefs and Practices in Southeast Asia: Studies on the Chinese Religion in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Singapore: Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 978-9679784527.
- Cooley, Frank L. (1968). Indonesia: Church and Society. New York: Friendship Press. ISBN 978-0-377-18021-5.
- Crouch, Melissa (2013). Law and Religion in Indonesia: Conflict and the Courts in West Java. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-83594-7.
- Domenig, Gaudenz (2014). Religion and Architecture in Premodern Indonesia: Studies in Spatial Anthropology. Leiden; Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-27400-6.
- Duncan, Christopher R. (2013). Violence and Vengeance: Religious Conflict and Its Aftermath in Eastern Indonesia. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7913-7.
- Ensiklopedi kepercayaan terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa (in Indonesian). [Jakarta]: Direktorat Jenderal Nilai Budaya, Seni dan Film; Direktorat Kepercayaan Terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. 2006. ISBN 978-9791607117.
- Epton, Nina Consuelo (1974). Magic and Mysticism in Java (revised ed.). London: Octagon Press. ISBN 978-0-900860-39-3.
- Federspiel, H. (1970). Persatuan Islam: Islamic Reform in Twentieth century Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Modern Indonesia Project.
- Fox, James J. (1996). Auger, Timothy (ed.). Indonesian Heritage: Religion and ritual. Indonesian Heritage Series. Vol. 9. Singapore: Archipelago Press. ISBN 978-9813018587.
- Fox, Richard (2011). Critical Reflections on Religion and Media in Contemporary Bali. Leiden; Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-17649-2.
- Frederick, William H.; Worden, Robert L., eds. (2011). Indonesia: A Country Study (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. ISBN 978-0-8444-0790-6.
- Geels, Antoon (1997). Subud and the Javanese mystical tradition. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press. ISBN 978-0-7007-0623-5.
- Geertz, Clifford (1960). Religion of Java. Glencoe, IL: Free Press. ISBN 978-0-226-28510-8.
- ——— (1968). Islam Observed, Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. Chicago; London: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-28511-5.
- ——— (1972). "Religious Change and Social Order in Soeharto's Indonesia". Asia (27): 62–84.
- ——— (1973). The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-09719-7.
- Goh, Robbie B. H. (2005). Christianity in Southeast Asia. Singapore: ISEAS: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-9812302977.
- Goris, Roelof (1931). The Island of Bali; Its Religion and Ceremonies. Amsterdam: Royal Packet Navigation Company.
- Gross, L. Max (2016). A Muslim archipelago: Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia. Washington, D.C.: National Defense Intelligence College. ISBN 978-1-932946-19-2.
- Hasan, Noorhaidi (2007). "The Salafi Movement in Indonesia: Transnational Dynamics and Local Development". Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Duke University Press. 27 (1): 83–94. doi:10.1215/1089201x-2006-045. ISSN 1089-201X.
- Hauser-Schäublin, Brigitta; Harnish, David D., eds. (2014). Between Harmony and Discrimination. Negotiating Religious Identities within Majority-minority Relationships in Bali and Lombok. Leiden; Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-27125-8.
- Headley, Stephen C. (2004). Durga's Mosque: Cosmology, Conversion And Community in Central Javanese Islam. Singapure: ISEAS: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN 978-981-230-242-7.
- Hefner, Robert W. (1989). Hindu Javanese: Tengger Tradition and Islam. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-09413-7.
- Hooykaas, Christiaan (1974). "Cosmogony and Creation in Balinese Tradition". Bibliotheca Indonesica. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISSN 0067-8023.
- Hosen, Nadirsyah (2005). "Religion and the Indonesian Constitution: A Recent Debate". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 36 (3): 419–40. doi:10.1017/S0022463405000238. ISBN 978-1-351-56077-1.
- Howe, Leo (2001). Hinduism & Hierarchy in Bali. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 978-0-85255-914-7.
- Howell, Julia Day (2001). "Sufism and the Indonesian Islamic Revival". The Journal of Asian Studies. 60 (3): 701–29. doi:10.2307/2700107. JSTOR 2700107.
- Ida, Achmah (2016). "Cyberspace and Sectarianism in Indonesia: The Rise of Shia Media and Anti-Shia Online Movements" (PDF). Jurnal Komunikasi Islam. Universitas Islam Negeri Sunan Ampel Surabaya. 6 (2): 194–215. ISSN 2088-6314.
- Husain, Sarkawi B. (2017). Sejarah Masyarakat Islam Indonesia (in Indonesian). Surabaya: Airlangga University press. ISBN 978-602-6606-47-1.
- Intan, Benyamin Fleming (2006). "Public religion" and the Pancasila-based state of Indonesia: an ethical and sociological analysis. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-0-8204-7603-2.
- Kahlon, Swarn Singh (2016). "Chapter 5. Sikhs in Indonesia". Sikhs in Asia Pacific: Travels among the Sikh Diaspora from Yangon to Kobe. New Delhi: Manohar Publisher. ISBN 978-9350981207.
- Kimura, Bunki (2003). "Present Situation of Indonesian Buddhism: In Memory of Bhikkhu Ashin Jinarakkhita Mahasthavira" (PDF). Nagoya Studies in Indian Culture and Buddhism: Sambhasa (23): 53–72. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2014.
- Kinney, Ann R.; Klokke, Marijke J.; Kieven, Lydia (2003). Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2779-3.
- Kipp, Rita Smith (1993). Dissociated Identities: Ethnicity, Religion, and Class in an Indonesian Society. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10412-3.
- Koentjaraningrat, R. M. (1987). "Javanese Religion". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 7. New York: MacMillan. pp. 559–63. ISBN 978-0-02-909480-8.
- Kraus, Werner (1997). "Transformations of a Religious Community: The Shattariyya Sufi Brotherhood in Aceh". In Kuhnt-Saptodewo, Sri; Grabowsky, Volker; Großheim, Martin (eds.). Nationalism and Cultural Revival in Southeast Asia: Perspectives from the Centre and Region. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 169–89. ISBN 978-3-447-03958-1.
- Kroef, Justus M. van der (1961). "New Religious Sects in Java". Far Eastern Survey. 30 (2): 18–25. doi:10.2307/3024260. JSTOR 3024260.
- Laffan, Michael (2011). The Makins of Indonesian Islam: orientalism and the narration of a Sufi past. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14530-3.
- Lansing, J. Stephen (1987). "Balinese Religion". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 2. New York: MacMillan. pp. 45–49. ISBN 978-0-02-909480-8.
- Levenda, Peter (2011). Tantric Temples: Eros and Magic in Java. Newburyport, MA: Ibis Press/Nicolas-Hays, Inc. ISBN 978-0-89254-169-0.
- Lidde, R. William (1996). "The Islamic Turn in Indonesia: A Political Explanation". Journal of Asian Studies. 55 (3): 613–34. doi:10.2307/2646448. JSTOR 2646448.
- Lindsey, Tim; Pausacker, Helen, eds. (1995). Religion, Law and Intolerance in Indonesia. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7914-2025-6.
- Maria, Siti; Limbeng, Julianus (2007). Marapu di Pulau Sumba, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Departemen Kebudayaan dan Pariwisata; Direktorat Jenderal Nilai Budaya, Seni dan Film; Direktorat Kepercayaan Terhadap Tuhan Yang Maha Esa. ISBN 9789794157961.
- Marshall, Paul (2018). "The Ambiguities of Religious Freedom in Indonesia". The Review of Faith & International Affairs. 16 (1): 85–96. doi:10.1080/15570274.2018.1433588.
- Matthes, Benjamin F. (1872). Over de bissoe's of heidensche priesters en priesteessen der Boeginezen (in Dutch). Amsterdam.
- McDaniel, June (2010). "Agama Hindu Dharma Indonesia as a New Religious Movement: Hinduism Recreated in the Image of Islam". Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 14 (1): 93–111. doi:10.1525/nr.2010.14.1.93.
- Mehden, Fred R. von der (1995). "Indonesia". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World: 4-volume Set. 2. New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-506613-5.
- Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin, eds. (2010). "Indonesia". Religions of the world: a comprehensive encyclopedia of beliefs and practices. 4 (2nd ed.). Santa Barbara; Denver; Oxford: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-59884-203-6.
- Metcalf, Peter (1987). "Bornean Religion". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 2. New York: MacMillan. pp. 290–92. ISBN 978-0-02-909480-8.
- Muhaimin, Abdul Ghoffir (2006). "Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims". The Islamic Traditions of Cirebon: Ibadat and Adat Among Javanese Muslims. Canberra: ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-920942-30-4. JSTOR j.ctt2jbkqk.
- Mulder, Niels (1998). Mysticism in Java: Ideology in Indonesia. Amsterdam: Pepin Press. ISBN 978-9054960478.
- Nooy-Palm, Hetty (1979). The Sa'dan-Toraja: A study of their social life and religion. I: Organization, symbols and beliefs (PDF). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-247-2274-7.
- ——— (1986). The Sa'dan-Toraja: A study of their social life and religion. II: Rituals of the East and West. Leiden; Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-67-65207-0.
- ——— (1987). "Toraja Religion". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 14. New York: MacMillan. pp. 565–67. ISBN 978-0-02-909480-8.
- Pedersen, Lene (2006). Ritual and World Change in a Balinese Princedom. Durham: Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-59460-022-7.
- Pelras, Christian (1987). "Bugis Religion". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 2. New York: MacMillan. pp. 560–61. ISBN 978-0-02-909480-8.
- Picard, Michel; Madinier, Rémy, eds. (2011). The Politics of Religion in Indonesia: Syncretism, Orthodoxy, and Religious Contention in Java and Bali. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-979-709-472-0.
- Popov, Igor (2017). Buku rujukan semua aliran dan perkumpulan agama di Indonesia [The Reference Book on All Religious Branches and Communities in Indonesia] (in Indonesian). Singaraja: Toko Buku Indra Jaya.
- Putten, Jan van der; Cody, Mary Kilcline, eds. (2009). Lost Times and Untold Tales from the Malay World. Singapore: NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-454-8.
- Pringle, Robert (2010). Understanding Islam in Indonesia: Politics and Diversity. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 978-981-4260-09-1.
- Rahman, Fatima Zainab (2014). "State restrictions on the Ahmadiyya sect in Indonesia and Pakistan: Islam or political survival?". Australian Journal of Political Science. 49 (3): 408–22. doi:10.1080/10361146.2014.934656.
- Ramstedt, Martin, ed. (2004). Hinduism in Modern Indonesia: A minority religion between local, national, and global interest. London; New York: RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1533-6.
- Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (2006). Mystic synthesis in Java: A history of Islamisation from the fourteenth to the early nineteenth centuries. White Plains, NY: EastBridge. ISBN 978-1-891936-61-6.
- ——— (2007). Polarising Javanese society: Islamic and other visions c. 1830–1930. Singapore; Leiden; Honolulu: NUS Press; KITLV Press; University of Hawai’i Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-346-6.
- ——— (2012). "A Political, Social, Cultural and Religious History, c. 1930 to Present". Islamisation and its opponents in Java: A political, social, cultural and religious history, c. 1930 to the present. Singapore; Honolulu: NUS Press; University of Hawai’i Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-631-3. JSTOR j.ctv1qv3fh.
- Rodgers, Susan (1981). Adat, Islam, and Christianity in a Batak Homeland. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University. ISBN 978-0-89680-110-3.
- ——— (1987). "Batak Religion". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 2. New York: MacMillan. pp. 81–83. ISBN 978-0-02-909480-8.
- Rofe, H. (1959). The Path of Subud. London: Rider.
- Rousseau, Jérôme (1998). Kayan Religion: Ritual Life and Religious Reform in Central Borneo. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 978-9067181327.
- Saran, Syam, ed. (2018). Cultural and Civilisational Links between India and Southeast Asia: Historical and Contemporary Dimensions. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-981-10-7316-8.
- Schärer, Hans (1963) . Ngaju Religion: The Conception of God among a South Borneo People. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-90-04-24799-4.
- Schiller, Anne (1996). Schieman, Scott (ed.). "An "Old" Religion in "New Order" Indonesia: Notes on Ethnicity and Religious Affiliation" (PDF). Sociology of Religion. Oxford University Press. 57 (4): 409–17. doi:10.2307/3711895. ISSN 1759-8818. JSTOR 3711895. OCLC 728290653.
- Seo, Myengkyo (2013). State Management of Religion in Indonesia. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-51716-4.
- Shah, Dian A. H. (2017). Constitutions, Religion and Politics in Asia: Indonesia, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-18334-6.
- Sidel, John T. (2006). Riots, Pogroms, Jihad: Religious Violence in Indonesia. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7327-2.
- Sievers, A. (1974). The Mystical World of Indonesia. Baltimore; London: Johns Hopkins University Press. ASIN B000Q1LA8E.
- Stange, Paul (1980). The Sumarah movement in Javanese mysticism. Thesis (Ph.D.) University of Wisconsin-Madison (PDF).
- Solahudin (2013) . The Roots of Terrorism in Indonesia: From Darul Islam to Jema'ah Islamiyah [NII Sampai JI: Salafy Jihadisme di Indonesia]. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-7938-0.
- Steenbrink, Karel (2003). Catholics in Indonesia: A documented history 1808–1942. Vol. 1: A modest recovery 1808–1903. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 978-90-6718-141-9.
- ——— (2007). Catholics in Indonesia: A documented history 1808–1942. Vol. 2: The Spectacular Growth of a Self Confident Minority, 1903–1942. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 978-90-6718-260-7.
- ——— (2015). Catholics in Independent Indonesia: 1945–2010. Leiden; Boston: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-28513-2.
- Stuart-Fox, David J. (2002). Pura Besakih: Temple, religion and society in Bali. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 978-9067181464.
- Sukamto (2018). Perjumpaan Antarpemeluk Agama di Nusantara: Masa Hindu-Buddha Sampai Sebelum Masuknya Portugis (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta: Deepublish. ISBN 978-602-475-476-1.
- Swellengrebel, J. L., ed. (1960). Bali: Studies in Life, Thought, and Ritual. The Hague: W. van Hoeve. ASIN B00ET0VF56Selected studies on Bali by Dutch scholars
- Swellengrebel, J. L., ed. (1969). Bali: Further Studies in Life, Thought, and Ritual. The Hague: W. van Hoeve. ASIN B0010P1VU2Selected studies on Bali by Dutch scholars
- Syryadinata, Leo (2005). "Buddism and Confucianism in Contemporary Indonesia: Recent Developments". In Lindsey, Tim; Pausacker, Helen (eds.). Chinese Indonesians: Remembering, Distorting, Forgetting. Singapore: ISEAS: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 77–94. ISBN 978-981-230-303-5.
- Winzeler, Robert L., ed. (1993). The Seen and the Unseen: Shamanism, Mediumship and Possession in Borneo. Williamsburg, Va.: Borneo Research Council. ISBN 978-0-9629568-1-2.
- Yang, Heriyanto (2005). "The History and Legal Position of Confucianism in Post Independence Indonesia" (PDF). Marburg Journal of Religion. 10 (1).
- Zulkifli (2011). The struggle of Shi'is in Indonesia. Canberra: ANU E Press. ISBN 978-1-925021-29-5.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2008. Indonesia". US Department of State. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- Shaw, Elliott, ed. (28 November 2016). "Indonesian Religions". PHILTAR, Division of Religion and Philosophy, University of Cumbria. Retrieved 2 March 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
- "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut" [Population by Region and Religion] (in Indonesian). Jakarta, Indonesia: Badan Pusat Statistik. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 20 October 2011.