Literature, most generically, is any body of written works. More restrictively, literature refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value, often due to deploying language in ways that differ from ordinary usage.
Its Latin root literatura/litteratura (derived itself from littera: letter or handwriting) was used to refer to all written accounts. The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature), and non-written verbal art forms. Developments in print technology have allowed an ever-growing distribution and proliferation of written works, culminating in electronic literature.
Pilgrim at Tinker Creek
is a 1974 nonfiction
narrative book by American author Annie Dillard
. Told from a first-person point of view, the book details an unnamed narrator's explorations near her home, and various contemplations on nature and life. The title refers to Tinker Creek
, which is outside Roanoke
's Blue Ridge Mountains
. Dillard began writing Pilgrim
in the spring of 1973, using her personal journals as inspiration. Separated into four sections that signify each of the seasons, the narrative takes place over the period of one year.
The book records the narrator's thoughts on solitude, writing, and religion, as well as scientific observations on the flora and fauna she encounters. Touching upon themes of faith, nature, and awareness, Pilgrim is also noted for its study of theodicy and the inherent cruelty of the natural world. The author has described it as a "book of theology", and she rejects the label of nature writer. Dillard considers the story a "single sustained nonfiction narrative", although several chapters have been anthologized separately in magazines and other publications. The book is analogous in design and genre to Henry David Thoreau's Walden (1854), the subject of Dillard's master's thesis at Hollins College. Critics often compare Dillard to authors from the Transcendentalist movement; Edward Abbey in particular deemed her Thoreau's "true heir".
Mário Raul de Morais Andrade
(October 9, 1893 – February 25, 1945) was a Brazilian poet
, art historian
, and photographer
. One of the founders of Brazilian modernism
, he virtually created modern Brazilian poetry with the publication of his Paulicéia Desvairada
) in 1922. He has had an enormous influence on modern Brazilian literature
, and as a scholar and essayist—he was a pioneer of the field of ethnomusicology
—his influence has reached far beyond Brazil.
Andrade was the central figure in the avant-garde movement of São Paulo for twenty years. Trained as a musician and best known as a poet and novelist, Andrade was personally involved in virtually every discipline that was connected with São Paulo modernism, and became Brazil's national polymath. His photography and essays on a wide variety of subjects, from history to literature and music, were widely published. He was the driving force behind the Week of Modern Art, the 1922 event that reshaped both literature and the visual arts in Brazil. At the end of his life, he became the founding director of São Paulo's Department of Culture, formalizing a role he had long held as the catalyst of the city's—and the nation's—entry into artistic modernity.
||Weeks passed, and the little Rabbit grew very old and shabby, but the Boy loved him just as much. He loved him so hard that he loved all his whiskers off, and the pink lining to his ears turned grey, and his brown spots faded. He even began to lose his shape, and he scarcely looked like a rabbit any more, except to the Boy. To him he was always beautiful, and that was all that the little Rabbit cared about. He didn’t mind how he looked to other people, because the nursery magic had made him Real, and when you are Real shabbiness doesn't matter.
— Margery Williams, The Velveteen Rabbit
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A Wonder-Book for Girls and Boys is a children's book written by Nathaniel Hawthorne in which he rewrites myths from Greek mythology. This illustration is from his retelling of the story of King Midas, who wished for and was granted the ability to turn everything he touched with his hands into gold. In Hawthorne's retelling, among the things Midas turned to gold was his daughter.
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Today in literature
1463 - Alessandro Achillini, Italian philosopher born
1652 - Antonio Coello, Spanish writer died
1822 - Thomas Hughes, English novelist born
1854 - Arthur Rimbaud, French poet born
1890 - Sir Richard Burton, British explorer and writer died
1900 - Naim Frashëri, Albanian poet died
1925 - Art Buchwald, American newspaper columnist born
1940 - Robert Pinsky, American poet born
1946 - Elfriede Jelinek, Austrian writer born
1983 - Yves Thériault, French Canadian author died
2004 - Anthony Hecht, American poet died
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