A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity made up of an association of people, be they natural, legal, or a mixture of both, for carrying on a commercial or industrial enterprise. Company members share a common purpose, and unite to focus their various talents and organize their collectively available skills or resources to achieve specific, declared goals. Companies take various forms, such as:
A company or association of persons can be created at law as a legal person so that the company in itself can accept limited liability for civil responsibility and taxation incurred as members perform (or fail to discharge) their duty within the publicly declared "birth certificate" or published policy.
Companies as legal persons may associate and register themselves collectively as other companies – often known as a corporate group. When a company closes, it may need a "death certificate" to avoid further legal obligations. Read more...
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Chicago Options Associates (COA) is a finance company in Chicago, Illinois which specializes in trading options and futures contracts. It was founded in 1987 by Oliver R. W. Pergams and Michael E. Davis. In 1994 Davis was its chief executive officer, hiring then-graduate student Jimmy Wales as research director; Wales served in this position until 1998.
The company and Davis were the subject of litigation resulting from a 2007 Illinois Supreme Court decision. In Dowling v. Chicago Options Associates, plaintiff Brian Dowling successfully sued the company (and Davis), winning a judgement of US$817,830.45 from both defendants. Davis tried to shield his assets by transferring funds to a law firm, DLA Piper, which had assisted him in buying a home in Florida. During this representation, Davis paid a retainer of $100,000 to DLA Piper; Dowling maintained that he was owed this money. Although the circuit and appellate courts agreed with Dowling, the Illinois Supreme Court reversed and found with DLA Piper. The Illinois State Bar Association and Chicago Bar Association filed amicus curiae briefs in the case, favoring the law firm's position. This decision by the Illinois Supreme Court was the first time the concept of "advance payment retainer" was recognized in the state, and the court codified its ruling into a 2009 regulation affecting legal practice in Illinois. Read more...
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The Intel 80486DX2 is a CPU produced by Intel Corporation that was introduced in 1992. Intel is the world's second largest semiconductor company and the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors.
30 St Mary Axe, London, widely known by the nickname "The Gherkin", and occasionally as a variant on The Swiss Re Tower, after its previous owner and principal occupier. Swiss Re is the world’s second-largest reinsurance company.
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Corporate governance is the collection of mechanisms, processes and relations by which corporations are controlled and operated. Governance structures and principles identify the distribution of rights and responsibilities among different participants in the corporation (such as the board of directors, managers, shareholders, creditors, auditors, regulators, and other stakeholders) and include the rules and procedures for making decisions in corporate affairs. Corporate governance is necessary because of the possibility of conflicts of interests between stakeholders, primarily between shareholders and upper management or among shareholders.
Corporate governance includes the processes through which corporations' objectives are set and pursued in the context of the social, regulatory and market environment. These include monitoring the actions, policies, practices, and decisions of corporations, their agents, and affected stakeholders. Corporate governance practices can be seen as attempts to align the interests of stakeholders. Read more...
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Oriental Film was a film production company in Batavia, Dutch East Indies (now Jakarta, Indonesia). Established by ethnic Chinese businessman Tjo Seng Han in 1940, it completed four black-and-white films before it was closed in 1941. All the company's films were screened into the 1950s but may now be lost. They were directed by two men, Njoo Cheong Seng and Sutan Usman Karim, and launched the careers of actors such as Dhalia and Soerip.
Established during the revival of the Indies film industry, Oriental released its first film, Kris Mataram, in July 1940. It starred Njoo's wife Fifi Young, and relied on her fame as a stage actress to draw audiences. This was followed by a further three films, which were targeted at low-income audiences and extensively used kroncong music. Their final production was Panggilan Darah in 1941, which was completed after Njoo and Young had migrated to Majestic Film. Oriental was unable to recoup its expenses of renting a Dutch-owned studio, and the company was shut down. Read more...
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Key BCA: A vasco keypad as used by Bank Central Asia.
PT Bank Central Asia Tbk, commonly known as Bank Central Asia (BCA) is an Indonesian bank founded on February 21, 1957. In 2016, BCA overtook DBS Bank of Singapore as Southeast Asia's biggest lender by value, with a market capitalisation of US$24.5 billion (S$34.2 billion).
The Asian financial crisis in 1997 had a tremendous impact on Indonesia's entire banking system. In particular, it affected BCA's cash flow and even threatened its survival. A bank rush forced BCA to seek assistance from the Indonesian government. The Indonesian Bank Restructuring Agency took over control of the bank in 1998. Full recovery was accomplished later in the same year. In December 1998, third-party funds were back at the pre-crisis level. BCA's assets stood at Rp 67.93 trillion, as opposed to Rp 53.36 trillion in December 1997. Public confidence in BCA was fully restored, and BCA was released by IBRA to BI in 2001.
Subsequently, BCA took a major step by going public. The IPO took place in 2000, selling 22.55% of BCA's shares that were being divested by IBRA. After the IPO, the agency still controlled 70.3% of BCA's total shares. The second public offering took place in June and July 2001, with IBRA divesting an additional 10% of its interest in BCA. In 2002, IBRA divested 51% of its BCA shares through a strategic private placement tender. The Mauritius-based Farindo Investment won the tender.
There is a BCA representative office in Singapore. Read more...
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