Perspectivism (also perspectivalism; German: Perspektivismus) is the view that perception, experience, and reason change according to the viewer's relative perspective and interpretation. It rejects both the idea of "one unchanging and essential world accessible to neutral representation by a disembodied subject."
There are many possible conceptual schemes, or perspectives in which judgment of truth or value can be made. This is often taken to imply that no way of seeing the world can be taken as definitively "true", but does not necessarily entail that all perspectives are equally valid. G. W. Leibniz integrated this view into his philosophy, but Friedrich Nietzsche fully developed it.
Perspectivism rejects objective metaphysics, claiming that no evaluation of objectivity can transcend cultural formations or subjective designations. Therefore, there are no objective facts, nor any knowledge of a thing-in-itself. Truth is separated from any particular vantage point, and so there are no ethical or epistemological absolutes. Rules (i.e., those of philosophy, the scientific method, etc.) are constantly reassessed according to the circumstances of individual perspectives. Truth is thus created by integrating different vantage points together.
People always adopt perspectives by default – whether they are aware of it or not – and the concepts of one's existence are defined by the circumstances surrounding that individual. Truth is made by and for individuals and peoples. This view differs from many types of relativism which consider the truth of a particular proposition as something that altogether cannot be evaluated with respect to an absolute truth, without taking into consideration culture and context.
In so far as the word "knowledge" has any meaning, the world is knowable; but it is interpretable [emphasis in original] otherwise, it has no meaning behind it, but countless meanings.—"Perspectivism." It is our needs that interpret the world; our drives and their For and Against. [emphasis added] Every drive is a kind of lust to rule; each one has its perspective that it would like to compel all the other drives to accept as a norm.
The importance of perspective appears in Nietzsche's published works as early as The Gay Science, where he describes the effects of seeing things from different viewpoints.
From a distance.— This mountain makes the landscape it dominates charming and significant in every way. Having said this to ourselves a hundred times, we become so unreasonable and grateful that we suppose that whatever bestows so much charm must also be the most charming thing around — and we climb the mountain and are disappointed. Suddenly the mountain itself and the whole landscape around us, below us, have lost their magic. We have forgotten that some greatness, like some goodness, wants to be beheld only from a distance and by all means only from below, not from above; otherwise it makes no impression.— Friedrich Nietzsche; trans. Walter Kaufmann, The Gay Science, §15
Richard Schacht, in his interpretation of Nietzsche's thought, argues that this can be expanded into a revised form of objectivity in relation to subjectivity as an aggregate of singular viewpoints. These aggregated perspectives illuminate, for example, a particular idea in seemingly self-contradictory ways. Upon further consideration they reveal a difference of contextuality and of rule by which such an idea (that is fundamentally perspectival) can be validated. Therefore, it can be said each perspective is subsumed into and, taking account of its individuated context, adds to the overall objective measure of a proposition under examination.
Contemporary varieties of perspectivism include:
- Individualist perspectivism
- Collectivist perspectivism
- Transcendental perspectivism
- Theological perspectivism
- Anekantavada, a fundamental doctrine of Jainism setting forth a pluralistic metaphysics, tracable to Mahavira (599–527 BCE)
- Blind men and an elephant
- Conceptual framework
- Consilience, the unity of knowledge
- Constructivist epistemology
- Integral theory (disambiguation)
- Moral nihilism
- Moral skepticism
- Multiperspectivalism, a current in Calvinist epistemology
- Philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche
- Philosophy of Søren Kierkegaard § Subjectivity
- Point of view (philosophy)
- Rhizome (philosophy)
- Ronald Giere, author of Scientific Perspectivism
- Standpoint theory
- Value pluralism
- Barry Sandywell, Dictionary of Visual Discourse: A Dialectical Lexicon of Terms, Routledge, 2012, p. 458 ("Perspectivism").
- "Friedrich Nietzsche | Biography, Books, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
- "Nietzsche's Perspectivism: Definition & Overview". Study.com. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
- "Friedrich Nietzsche". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 17 March 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- Barry Sandywell, Dictionary of Visual Discourse: A Dialectical Lexicon of Terms, Routledge, 2012, p. 458 ("Perspectives, Philosophical").
- Lacewing, Michael (2017). "Nietzsche's perspectivism" (PDF). Philosophy for A Level. Routledge.
- Mautner, Thomas, The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy, 2005, page 418
- Schacht, Richard, Nietzsche, 1993, page 61.
- Scott-Kakures, Dion (1993), HarperCollins College Outline History of Philosophy, 1993, page 346
- Nietzsche, Friedrich (1878). "Section 16". Human, All Too Human.
- "Friedrich Nietzsche - Nietzsche's mature philosophy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-05-27.
- Original German: Soweit überhaupt das Wort "Erkenntniß" Sinn hat, ist die Welt erkennbar: aber sie ist anders deutbar, sie hat keinen Sinn hinter sich, sondern unzählige Sinne. – "Perspektivismus". ¶ Unsere Bedürfnisse sind es, die die Welt auslegen; unsere Triebe und deren Für und Wider. Jeder Trieb ist eine Art Herrschsucht, jeder hat seine Perspektive, welche er als Norm allen übrigen Trieben aufzwingen möchte. (Wille zur Macht, Nr. 481.)
- Holmes, Oliver, "José Ortega y Gasset", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).