Nordic Bronze Age
This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Geographical range||Southern Scandinavia and Northern Germany|
|Dates||circa 1700 BCE – circa 500 BCE|
|Preceded by||Pitted Ware culture, Battle Axe culture|
|Followed by||Jastorf culture, Pre-Roman Iron Age|
The Nordic Bronze Age (also Northern Bronze Age, or Scandinavian Bronze Age) is a period of Scandinavian prehistory from c. 1700–500 BC.
The Nordic Bronze Age emerged about 1700 BC through the fusion of the Battle Axe culture and the Pitted Ware culture. It maintained close trade links with Mycenaean Greece, with whom it shares several striking similarities. Cultural similarities between the Nordic Bronze Age, the Sintastha/Andronovo culture and peoples of the Rigveda have also been detected.[a] Some scholars also include sites in what is now Finland, Estonia, northern Germany and Pomerania as part of its cultural sphere.
The people of the Nordic Bronze Age were actively engaged in the export of amber, and imported metals in return, becoming expert metalworkers. With respects to the number and density of metal deposits, the Nordic Bronze Age became the richest culture in Europe during its existence.
The Nordic Bronze Age is a successor of the Corded Ware culture in southern Scandinavia and Northern Germany. It appears to represent a fusion of elements from the Corded Ware culture and the preceding Pitted Ware culture.
Oscar Montelius, who coined the term used for the period, divided it into six distinct sub-periods in his piece Om tidsbestämning inom bronsåldern med särskilt avseende på Skandinavien ("On Bronze Age dating with particular focus on Scandinavia") published in 1885, which is still in wide use. His absolute chronology has held up well against radiocarbon dating, with the exception that the period's start is closer to 1700 BC than 1800 BC, as Montelius suggested. For Central Europe a different system developed by Paul Reinecke is commonly used, as each area has its own artifact types and archaeological periods.
A broader subdivision is the Early Bronze Age, between 1700 BC and 1100 BC, and the Late Bronze Age, 1100 BC to 550 BC. These divisions and periods are followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
|Part of a series on|
The west coast of Sweden, namely Bohuslän, has the largest concentration of Bronze Age rock carvings in Scandinavia; and Scandinavia has the largest amount of Bronze Age rock carvings in Europe. The west coast of Sweden is home to around 1,500 recorded rock engraving sites, with more being discovered every year. When the rock carvings were made, the area was the coastline; but it is now 25 meters above sea level. The engravings in the region depict everyday life, weapons, human figures, fishing nets, ships, the sun, deer, bulls, horses, and birds. By far, the most dominate theme is human figures and ships, especially ships — 10,000 of which have recorded. The typical ship depicts a crew of six to thirteen. Rock carvings in the late Bronze Age, and even the early Iron Age, often depict conflict, power, and mobility.
Settlement in the Nordic Bronze Age period consisted mainly of single farmsteads, with no towns or substantial villages known - farmsteads usually consisted of a longhouse plus additional four-post built structures (helms) - longhouses were initially two aisled, and after c. 1300 BC three aisled structure became normal. Evidence of multiple longhouses at a single site have been found, but they are thought to date to different periods, rather than being of the same date. Settlements were geographically located on higher ground, and tended to be concentrated near the sea.
Associated with Nordic Bronze Age settlements are burial mounds and cemeteries, with interments including oak coffins and urn burials; other settlement associations include rock carvings, or bronze hoards in wetland sites.
In the Nordic Bronze Age, both agriculture (including wheat, millet, and barley) and husbandry (keeping of domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs) were practiced, and fishing and shellfish were also sources of food, as well as deer, elk, and other wild animal hunting. There is evidence that oxen were used as draught animals, domesticated dogs were common, horses were rarer and probably status symbols.
Even though Scandinavians joined the European Bronze Age cultures fairly late through trade, Scandinavian sites present a rich and well-preserved legacy of bronze and gold objects. These valuable metals were all imported, primarily from Central Europe, but they were often crafted locally and the craftsmanship and metallurgy of the Nordic Bronze Age was of a high standard. The archaeological legacy also comprise locally of crafted wool and wooden objects.
During the 15th and 14th centuries BC, southern Scandinavia produced and deposited more elaborate bronzes in graves and hoards than any other region of Europe. With respects to the number and density of metal deposits, the Nordic Bronze Age became the richest culture in Europe.
The Nordic Bronze Age maintained intimate trade links with the Tumulus culture and Mycenaean Greece. The Nordic Bronze Age exported amber through the Amber Road, importing metals in return. During the time of the Nordic Bronze Age, metals, such as copper, tin and gold, were imported into Scandinavia on a massive scale. Copper was imported from Sardinia and Iberia. The trade network was briefly disrupted during the Late Bronze Age collapse in the 12th century BC.
The art of the Nordic Bronze Age is very similar to that of Mycenaean Greece. The similarities are so striking that archaeologists have referred to the Nordic Bronze Age as "a specific and selective Nordic variety of Mycenaean high culture". These similarities can not have come about without intimate contacts, probably through the travels of warriors and mercenaries. It might also reflect and common Indo-European tradition. Such similarities are not detected between Mycenaean Greece and other European Bronze Age cultures.
Religion and cult
There is no coherent knowledge about the Nordic Bronze Age religion; its pantheon, world view and how it was practised. Written sources are lacking, but archaeological finds draw a vague and fragmented picture of the religious practices and the nature of the religion of this period. Only some possible sects and only certain possible tribes are known. Some of the best clues come from tumuli, elaborate artifacts, votive offerings and rock carvings scattered across Northern Europe.
Many finds indicate a strong sun-worshipping cult in the Nordic Bronze Age and various animals have been associated with the sun's movement across the sky, including horses, birds, snakes and marine creatures (see also Sól).
Hieros gamos rites may have been common.
A pair of twin gods are believed to have been worshipped, and is reflected in a duality in all things sacred: where sacrificial artifacts have been buried they are often found in pairs. Sacrifices (animals, weapons, jewellery and humans) often had a strong connection to bodies of water.
Boglands, ponds, streams or lakes were often used as ceremonial and holy places for sacrifices and many artifacts have been found in such locations.
There are many rock carving sites from this period. The rock carvings have been dated through comparison with depicted artifacts, for example bronze axes and swords. Many rock carvings are uncanny in resemblance to those found in the Corded Ware Culture. There are also numerous Nordic Stone Age rock carvings, those of northern Scandinavia mostly portray elk.
Ritual instruments such as bronze lurs have been uncovered, especially in the region of Denmark and western Sweden. Lur horns are also depicted in several rock carvings and are believed to have been used in ceremonies.
Remnants of the Bronze Age religion and mythology are believed to exist in Germanic mythology and Norse mythology; e.g., Skinfaxi and Hrímfaxi and Nerthus, and it is believed to itself be descended from the earlier Indo-European religion.
Boat and sun symbols. Madsebakke at Bornholm, Denmark.
Men with weapons. Tanumshede, western Sweden.
Sun wagon. Petroglyph depiction from Tanum, Sweden.
Sun cult artifacts. The Trundholm sun chariot, Denmark.
Ceremonial helmets. Veksø, Denmark.
Burial mounds. Gårdstånga, Skåne, Sweden.
Mound burials with oak coffins. Borum Eshøj Man, in Borum, Denmark.
Stone ship monuments. Gotland in Sweden.
Hunting scenes. Reindeer, hunters and fishing boats. Alta in Norway.
Boats and sun symbols. Bardal Rock carvings, Steinkjer, Norway.
Thousands of rock carvings from the Nordic Bronze Age depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments, known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. The depicted ships, most likely represents sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat. 3,600-year old bronze axes and other tools made from Cypriot copper have been found in the region.
The Nordic Bronze Age was initially characterized by a warm climate that began with a climate change around 2700 BC. The climate was comparable to that of present-day central Germany and northern France and permitted a fairly dense population and good opportunities for farming; for example, grapes were grown in Scandinavia at this time. A minor change in climate occurred between 850 BC and 760 BC, introducing a wetter, colder climate and a more radical climate change began around 650 BC.
A June 2015 study published in Nature found the people of the Nordic Bronze Age to be closely genetically related to the Corded Ware culture, the Beaker culture and the Unetice culture. People of the Nordic Bronze Age and Corded Ware show the highest lactose tolerance among Bronze Age Europeans. The study suggested that the Sintashta culture, and its succeeding Andronovo culture, represented an eastward migration of Corded Ware peoples. Numerous cultural similarities between the Nordic Bronze, the Sintastha/Andronovo culture and peoples described in the Rigveda have been detected.[a]
In the June 2015 study, the remains of nine individuals of the Northern Bronze Age and earlier Neolithic cultures in Denmark and Sweden from ca. 2850 BC to 500 BC, were analyzed. Among the Neolithic individuals, the three males were found to be carrying haplogroup I, R1a1a1 and R1b1a1a2a1a1. Among the individuals from the Nordic Bronze Age, two males carried I, while two carried R1b1a1a2.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nordic Bronze Age.|
- Bronze Age Europe
- Bronze Age sword
- Egtved Girl
- The King's Grave
- Stone ships
- Pomeranian culture
- Single Grave culture
- "European Late Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures such as Corded Ware, Bell Beakers, Unetice, and the Scandinavian cultures are genetically very similar to each other... The close affinity we observe between peoples of Corded Ware and Sintashta cultures suggests similar genetic sources of the two... Among Bronze Age Europeans, the highest tolerance frequency was found in Corded Ware and the closely-related Scandinavian Bronze Age cultures... The Andronovo culture, which arose in Central Asia during the later Bronze Age, is genetically closely related to the Sintashta peoples, and clearly distinct from both Yamnaya and Afanasievo. Therefore, Andronovo represents a temporal and geographical extension of the Sintashta gene pool... There are many similarities between Sintasthta/Androvono rituals and those described in the Rig Veda and such similarities even extend as far as to the Nordic Bronze Age."
- Zvelebil 1997, pp. 431-435.
- Thomas 1992, p. 295.
- Kristiansen & Suchowska-Ducke 2015, pp. 371-372.
- Kristiansen & Suchowska-Ducke 2015, p. 369.
- Frei 2019.
- Schmidt 1991, pp. 129-133.
- Douglas Price 2015, p. 196.
- Thrane, Henrik, "Scandinavian Bronze Age", in Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin (eds.), Encyclopedia of Prehistory, 4 (Europe), pp. 299–314
- Kristiansen & Suchowska-Ducke 2015, p. 367.
- Kristiansen & Suchowska-Ducke 2015, p. 362.
- Kristiansen & Suchowska-Ducke 2015, pp. 363-364.
- Ling 2008. Elevated Rock Art. GOTARC Serie B. Gothenburg Archaeological Thesis 49. Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Gothenburg, Goumlteborg, 2008. ISBN 978-91-85245-34-5.
- Kane, Njord (1 November 2016). The Viking Stone Age: Birth of the Ax Culture. Spangenhelm Publishing.
- Allentoft 2015.
- Mathieson 2015.
- Mathieson 2018.
- Allentoft, ME (June 11, 2015). "Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia". Nature. Nature Research. 522 (7555): 167–172. doi:10.1038/nature14507. PMID 26062507.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Dabrowski, J. (1989) Nordische Kreis un Kulturen Polnischer Gebiete. Die Bronzezeit im Ostseegebiet. Ein Rapport der Kgl. Schwedischen Akademie der Literatur Geschichte und Alter unt Altertumsforschung über das Julita-Symposium 1986. Ed Ambrosiani, B. Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. Konferenser 22. Stockholm.
- Davidson, H. R. Ellis and Gelling, Peter: The Chariot of the Sun and other Rites and Symbols of the Northern European Bronze Age.
- K. Demakopoulou (ed.), Gods and Heroes of the European Bronze Age, published on the occasion of the exhibition "Gods and Heroes of the Bronze Age. Europe at the Time of Ulysses", from December 19, 1998, to April 5, 1999, at the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen, London (1999), ISBN 0-500-01915-0.
- Demougeot, E. La formation de l'Europe et les invasions barbares, Paris: Editions Montaigne, 1969-1974.
- Douglas Price, Theron (2015). Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190231972.
- Frei, Karin Margarita (August 21, 2019). "Mapping human mobility during the third and second millennia BC in present-day Denmark". PLOS One. PLOS. 14 (8): e0219850. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0219850. PMID 31433798.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kaliff, Anders. 2001. Gothic Connections. Contacts between eastern Scandinavia and the southern Baltic coast 1000 BC – 500 AD.
- Kristiansen, Kristian; Suchowska-Ducke, Paulina (December 2015). "Connected Histories: the Dynamics of Bronze Age Interaction and Trade 1500–1100 bc". Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society. Cambridge University Press. 81: 361–392. doi:10.1017/ppr.2015.17. Retrieved February 9, 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Montelius, Oscar, 1885. Om tidsbestämning inom bronsåldern med särskilt avseende på Skandinavien.
- Mathieson, Iain (November 23, 2015). "Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians". Nature. Nature Research. 528 (7583): 499–503. doi:10.1038/nature16152. PMC 4918750. PMID 26595274.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mathieson, Iain (February 21, 2018). "The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe". Nature. Nature Research. 555 (7695): 197–203. doi:10.1038/nature25778. PMC 6091220. PMID 29466330.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Musset, L. Les invasions: les vagues germanique, Paris: Presses universitaires de France, 1965.
- Schmidt, Karl Horst (1991). "The Celts and the Ethnogenesis of the Germanic People". Historische Sprachforschung. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. 104 (1): 129–152. JSTOR 40849016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thomas, Homer L. (1992). "Archaeology And Indo-European Comparative Linguistics". In Polomé, Edgar C. (ed.). Reconstructing Languages and Cultures. 1. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 281–315. ISBN 9783110126716.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zvelebil, Marek (1997). "Pitted Ware And Related Cultures Of Neolithic Northern Europe". In Bogucki, Peter I.; Crabtree, Pam J. (eds.). Ancient Europe 8000 B.C.- A.D. 1000. Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World. 1. Scribner. pp. 431–435. ISBN 068480669X.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)