List of former German colonies
This is a list of former German colonies and protectorates (German: Schutzgebiete) established by the German Empire, Brandenburg-Prussia and the Habsburg Monarchy. This list may be incomplete, you can help by expanding it.
- Groß Friedrichsburg (in Ghana), 1683–1718
- Arguin (in Mauritania), 1685–1721
- Whydah (in present Bénin), circa 1700 (this Brandenburg 'colony' was just a minor point of support, a few dwellings at a site co-inhabited by British and Dutch)
These territories were held briefly under lease or occupation during the early European colonization of the New World.
- Saint Thomas. Leased by Brandenburg from the Danish West India Company, 1685–1720.
- Island of Crabs (Krabbeninsel in German) (Caribbean, now US), Brandenburg annexation in the Danish West Indies, 1689–1693
- Tertholen (Caribbean), 1696. Occupation.
- Banquibazar & Cabelon (1719/23–1744/50)
- Nicobar islands (1778–1783)
- Tientsin concession (1901–1917)
Imperial German colonies
The following were German African protectorates:
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika):
- Tanganyika: In 1922 became a League of Nations mandate under the United Kingdom. In 1961 became independent and in 1964 joined with former British protectorate of the sultanate of Zanzibar to form present-day Tanzania.
- Ruanda-Urundi (1885–1917): present-day Rwanda and Burundi after the Belgian mandate period.
- Wituland (1885–1890): Part of Kenya since 1890.
- Kionga Triangle: since 1920 (earlier occupied) part of Portuguese Mozambique.
- German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika): present-day Namibia (except then-British Walvis Bay) and part of Botswana (Südrand des Caprivi-Zipfels).
German West Africa (Deutsch-Westafrika): existed as one unit only for two or three years, then split into two colonies due to distances.
Kamerun (1884–1914): after World War I, separated into the following.
- A British part, Cameroons, later split in half, with one part joining Nigeria and the other becoming part of modern Cameroon. (Kamerun, Nigeria-Ostteil, Tschad-Südwestteil, Zentralafrikanische Republik-Westteil, Republik Kongo-Nordostteil, Gabun-Nordteil)
- French Cameroun, which became present Cameroon.
- Togoland (1884–1914): after World War I it separated into
- Kamerun (1884–1914): after World War I, separated into the following.
These were German colonies in the Pacific:
German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) (1884–1914) and Micronesia (later incorporated into the German New Guinea)
- Bismarck Archipelago (Bismarck-Archipel)
- German Solomon Islands or Northern Solomon Islands (Salomonen or Nördliche Salomon-Inseln) (1885–1899)
- Bougainville Island (Bougainville-Insel) (1888–1919)
- Nauru (1888–1919)
- Marshall Islands (Marschall-Inseln) (1885–1919)
- Mariana Islands (Marianen) (1899–1919): present-day Northern Mariana Islands.
- Caroline Islands (Karolinen) (1899–1919): present-day Federated States of Micronesia and Palau.
- German Samoa (Deutsch-Samoa) (1899–1914): present-day Samoa.
- German colonization of the Americas
- German colonial empire
- German colonial projects before 1871
- Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty
- Postage stamps and postal history of the German colonies
- New Swabia
- Ernst Thälmann Island