Outline of finance
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to finance:
Finance – addresses the ways in which individuals and organizations raise and allocate monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects.
Contents
 1 Overview
 2 Fundamental financial concepts
 3 History
 4 Finance terms by field

5 Financial markets
 5.1 Market and instruments
 5.2 Equity market
 5.3 Bond market
 5.4 Money market
 5.5 Commodity market
 5.6 Derivatives market
 6 Financial regulation
 7 Actuarial topics
 8 Asset types
 9 Raising capital
 10 Valuation
 11 Portfolio theory
 12 Financial software tools
 13 Financial institutions
 14 Lists
 15 See also
 16 External links
Overview[edit]
The word finance may incorporate any of the following:
 The study of money and other assets
 The management and control of those assets
 Profiling and managing project risks
Fundamental financial concepts[edit]

Finance Overview
 Arbitrage
 Capital (economics)
 Capital asset pricing model
 Cash flow
 Cash flow matching
 Debt
 Discounted cash flow
 Financial capital
 Financial modeling
 Entrepreneur
 Fixed income analysis
 Gap financing
 Global financial system
 Hedge
 Interest rate
 Short rate model
 Interest
 Investment
 Leverage
 Long (finance)
 Liquidity
 Margin (finance)
 Mark to market
 Market Impact
 Medium of exchange
 Microcredit
 Money
 Portfolio
 Reference rate
 Return
 Risk
 Scenario analysis
 Short (finance)
 Speculation
 Position trader
 Spread trade
 Standard of deferred payment
 Store of value
 Time horizon
 Time value of money
 Unit of account
 Volatility
 Yield
 Yield curve
History[edit]
 History of banking
 History of insurance
 Tulip mania 1620s/1630s
 South Sea Bubble & Mississippi Company 1710s; see also Stock market bubble
 Vix pervenit 1745, on usury and other dishonest profit
 Panic of 1837
 Railway mania 1840s
 Erie War 1860s
 Long Depression 1873 to 1896
 PostWorld War I hyperinflation; see Hyperinflation and Inflation in the Weimar Republic
 Wall Street Crash 1929
 Great Depression 1930s
 Bretton Woods Accord 1944
 1973 oil crisis
 1979 energy crisis
 Savings and Loan Crisis 1980s
 Black Monday 1987
 Asian financial crisis 1990s
 Dotcom bubble 19952001
 Stock market downturn of 2002
 United States housing bubble
 Financial crisis of 2007–2010
Finance terms by field[edit]
Accounting (financial record keeping)[edit]
 Auditing
 Accounting software
 Book keeping
 FASB
 Financial accountancy
 Management accounting
 Philosophy of Accounting
 Working capital
Banking[edit]
 Anonymous banking
 Automatic teller machine
 Deposit
 Deposit creation multiplier
 Ethical banking
 International Bank Account Number
 Islamic banking
 Loan
 Withdrawal
Corporate finance[edit]
 Balance sheet analysis
 Business plan
 Capital budgeting
 Corporate action
 Managerial finance
 Mergers and acquisitions
 Real options
 Working capital management
Investment management[edit]
 See also: #General concepts under Portfolio theory below.
 Active management
 Efficient market hypothesis
 Portfolio
 Modern portfolio theory
 Arbitrage pricing theory
 Passive management
 Activist shareholder
 Mutual fund
 Financial engineering
 Hedge fund
 Hedge
Personal finance[edit]
 529 plan (college savings)
 Asset allocation
 Budget
 Coverdell Education Savings Account (Coverdell ESAs, formerly known as Education IRAs)
 Credit and debt
 Debit card
 Direct deposit
 Employment contract
 Financial literacy
 Insurance
 Predatory lending
 Retirement plan
 Simple living
 Social security
 Tax advantage
 Wealth
 Comparison of accounting software
 Personal financial management
 Investment club
 Collective investment scheme
Public finance[edit]
 Central bank
 Federal Reserve
 Fractionalreserve banking

Tax
 Capital gains tax
 Estate tax (and inheritance tax)
 Gift tax
 Income tax
 Inheritance tax
 Payroll tax
 Property tax (including land value tax)
 Sales tax (including value added tax, excise tax, and use tax)
 Transfer tax (including stamp duty)
 Tax advantage
 Tax, tariff and trade
 Tax amortization benefit
 Crowding out
 Industrial policy
 Agricultural policy
 Currency union
 Monetary reform
Insurance[edit]
 Actuarial science
 Annuities
 Catastrophe modeling
 Earthquake loss
 Extended coverage
 Insurable interest
 Insurable risk
 Insurance
 Insurance contract
 Risk Retention Group
Economics and finance[edit]
Mathematics and finance[edit]
Time value of money[edit]
Financial mathematics[edit]
Mathematical tools[edit]
 Probability
 Stochastic calculus
 Monte Carlo methods
 Partial differential equations
 Volatility
Derivatives pricing[edit]
 Brownian model of financial markets
 Martingale pricing

Rational pricing assumptions (See also Fundamental theorem of asset pricing)
 Riskneutral measure
 Arbitragefree pricing
 Forward contract
 Futures

Options (incl. Real options and ESOs)

Black–Scholes formula
 Approximations for American options
 Black model
 Binomial options model
 Finite difference methods for option pricing
 Garman–Kohlhagen model
 The Greeks
 Lattice model (finance)
 Margrabe's formula

Monte Carlo methods for option pricing
 Monte Carlo methods in finance
 QuasiMonte Carlo methods in finance
 Least Square Monte Carlo for American options
 Trinomial tree
 Volatility

Black–Scholes formula
 Swaps

Interest rate derivatives (bond options, swaptions, caps and floors, and others)
 Black model
 Shortrate models (generally applied via lattice based and specialized simulationmodels, although "Black like" formulae exist in some cases.)

Forward ratebased models (Application as per shortrate models)
 LIBOR market model (also called: Brace–Gatarek–Musiela Model, BGM)
 Heath–Jarrow–Morton Model (HJM)
 Valuation adjustments
Constraint finance[edit]
 Environmental finance
 Feminist economics
 Green economics
 Islamic economics
 Uneconomic growth
 Value of Earth
 Value of life
Financial markets[edit]
Market and instruments[edit]
 Capital markets
 Securities
 Financial markets
 Primary market
 Initial public offering
 Aftermarket
 Free market
 Bull market
 Bear market
 Bear market rally
 Market maker
 Dow Jones Industrial Average
 Nasdaq
 List of stock exchanges
 List of stock market indices
 List of corporations by market capitalization
 Value Line Composite Index
Equity market[edit]
 Stock market
 Stock
 Common stock
 Preferred stock
 Treasury stock
 Equity investment
 Index investing
 Private Equity
 Financial reports and statements
 Fundamental analysis
 Dividend
 Dividend yield
 Stock split
Equity valuation[edit]
 See also: #Discounted cash flow valuation below
 Dow theory
 Elliott wave principle
 Economic value added
 Fibonacci retracement
 Gordon model
 Growth stock
 Mergers and acquisitions
 Leveraged buyout
 Takeover
 Corporate raid
 PE ratio
 Market capitalization
 Income per share
 Stock valuation
 Technical analysis
 Chart patterns
 Vtrend
 Paper valuation
Investment theory[edit]
 Behavioral finance
 Dead cat bounce
 Efficient market hypothesis
 Market microstructure
 Stock market crash
 Stock market bubble
 January effect
 Mark Twain effect
 Quantitative behavioral finance
 Quantitative analysis (finance)
 Statistical arbitrage
Bond market[edit]
 Bond (finance)
 Zerocoupon bond
 Junk bonds
 Convertible bond
 Accrual bond
 Municipal bond
 Sovereign bond
 Bond valuation
 Fixed income
Money market[edit]
 Repurchase agreement
 International Money Market
 Currency
 Exchange rate
 International currency codes
 Table of historical exchange rates
Commodity market[edit]

Commodity
 Asset
 Commodity Futures Trading Commission
 Day trading
 Drawdowns
 Forfaiting
 Fundamental analysis
 Futures contract
 Fungibility
 Gold as an investment
 Hedging
 Jesse Lauriston Livermore
 List of traded commodities
 Ownership equity
 Position trader
 Risk (Futures)
 Seasonal traders
 Seasonal spread trading
 Slippage
 Speculation
 Spread trade
 Technical analysis
 Trade
 Trend
Derivatives market[edit]
 Derivative (finance)
 (see also Financial mathematics topics; Derivatives pricing)
 Underlying instrument
Forward markets and contracts[edit]
Futures markets and contracts[edit]
 Backwardation
 Contango

Futures contract
 Financial future
 Futures exchange
Option markets and contracts[edit]

Options
 Stock option
 Warrants
 Foreign exchange option
 Interest rate options
 Bond options
 Real options
 Options on futures
Swap markets and contracts[edit]
 see: Swap (finance)
Derivative markets by underlyings[edit]
Equity derivatives[edit]
 Contract for difference (CFD)
 Exchangetraded fund (ETF)
 Equity options
 Equity swap
 Real estate investment trust (REIT)
 Warrants
Interest rate derivatives[edit]
 LIBOR
 Forward rate agreement
 Interest rate swap
 Interest rate cap
 Exotic interest rate option
 Bond option
 Interest rate future
 Money market instruments
 Range accrual Swaps/Notes/Bonds
 Inarrears Swap
 Constant maturity swap (CMS) or Constant Treasury Swap (CTS) derivatives (swaps, caps, floors)
 Interest rate Swaption
 Bermudan swaptions
 Cross currency swaptions
 Power Reverse Dual Currency note (PRDC or Turbo)
 Target redemption note (TARN)
 CMS steepener
 Snowball
 Inverse floater
 Strips of Collateralized mortgage obligation
 Ratchet caps and floors
Credit derivatives[edit]
 Credit default swap
 Collateralized debt obligation
 Credit default option
 Total return swap
 Securitization
Foreign exchange derivative[edit]
 Foreign exchange option
 Currency future
 Forex swap
 Foreign exchange hedge
 Binary option: Foreign exchange
Financial regulation[edit]
Designations and accreditation[edit]
 Certified Financial Planner
 Chartered Financial Analyst
 Chartered Alternative Investment Analyst
 Professional Risk Manager
 Chartered Financial Consultant
 Canadian Securities Institute
 Independent Financial Adviser
 Financial Risk Manager
 Chartered Accountant
Litigation[edit]
Fraud[edit]
Industry bodies[edit]
Regulatory bodies[edit]
International[edit]
 Bank for International Settlements
 International Organization of Securities Commissions
 Security Commission
 Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
 Basel Accords – Basel I, Basel II, Basel III
 International Association of Insurance Supervisors
 International Accounting Standards Board
European Union[edit]
Regulatory bodies by country[edit]
United Kingdom[edit]
United States[edit]
 Commodity Futures Trading Commission
 Federal Reserve
 Federal Trade Commission
 Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board
 Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
 Securities and Exchange Commission
United States legislation[edit]
 Glass–Steagall Act (US)
 GrammLeachBliley Act (US)
 SarbanesOxley Act (US)
 Securities Act of 1933 (US)
 Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (US)
 Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (US)
 USA PATRIOT Act
Actuarial topics[edit]
Asset types[edit]
Raising capital[edit]
Valuation[edit]
 Note that this section is corporate finance focused  for the valuation of derivatives and interest rate / fixed income instruments see #Derivatives pricing above.
Underlying theory[edit]
 Value (economics)
 Valuation (finance) and specifically #Valuation overview
 Valuation risk
 Real versus nominal value (economics)
 Fair value
 Intrinsic value
 Market price
 Value in use
 "The Theory of Investment Value"
 Asset pricing
Discounted cash flow valuation[edit]
 (Corporate) Bond valuation
 Context
 Modelling (Bond valuation §)
 Results
 Cash flows
 Considerations

Equity valuation
 Context (see also #Equity valuation above)
 Results
 Considerations
 Specific models and approaches
 Modelling
 Cash flow
 Required return (i.e. discount rate^{[disambiguation needed]})
 Terminal value
 Forecasted financial statements
Relative valuation[edit]
 Bonds
 Real estate
 Equity
Contingent claim valuation[edit]
 Valuation techniques
 Applications
 Corporate investments and projects

Balance sheet assets and liabilities
 warrants and other convertible securities
 securities with embedded options such as callable bonds
 employee stock options
 structured finance investments (funding dependent)
 special purpose entities (funding dependent)
Portfolio theory[edit]
General concepts[edit]
 Portfolio (finance)
 Portfolio manager
 Investment management
 Investor profile
 Rate of return on a portfolio / Investment performance
 Risk return ratio
 Risk factor (finance)
 Portfolio optimization
 Diversification (finance)
 Asset classes
 Asset allocation
 Sector rotation
 Correlation & covariance
 Riskfree interest rate
 Leverage (finance)
 Utility function
 Intertemporal portfolio choice
 Portfolio insurance
 Mathematical finance §Risk and portfolio management: the P world
Modern portfolio theory[edit]
 Theory and results (derivation of the CAPM)
 Market price
 Systematic risk
 Idiosyncratic risk / Specific risk
 Meanvariance analysis (Twomoment decision model)
 Efficient frontier (Mean variance efficiency)
 Feasible set
 Mutual fund separation theorem
 Tangent portfolio
 Market portfolio
 Beta (finance)
 Capital allocation line
 Capital market line
 Security characteristic line
 Capital asset pricing model
 Security market line
 Roll's critique
 Related measures
 Equilibrium pricing models (CAPM and extensions)
 Optimization models
Postmodern portfolio theory[edit]
 Approaches
 Optimization considerations
 Pareto efficiency
 Bayesian efficiency
 Multiplecriteria decision analysis
 Multiobjective optimization
 Stochastic dominance
 Downside risk
 Risk parity
 Tail risk parity
 Volatility skewness
 Semivariance
 Expected shortfall (ES; also called conditional value at risk (CVaR), average value at risk (AVaR), expected tail loss (ETL))
 Tail value at risk
 Statistical dispersion
 Discounted maximum loss
 Indifference price
 Measures
 Optimization models
Performance measurement[edit]
 Performance attribution
 Fixedincome attribution
 Benchmark
 Lipper average
 Returnsbased style analysis
 Rate of return on a portfolio
 Holding period return
 Tracking error
 Alpha (finance)
 Beta (finance)
 Simple Dietz method
 Modified Dietz method
 Modigliani riskadjusted performance
 Upside potential ratio
 Maximum Downside Exposure
 Maximum drawdown
 Sharpe ratio
 Treynor ratio
 Jensen's alpha
 Bias ratio
 V2 ratio
 Calmar ratio (hedge fund specific)
Mathematical techniques[edit]
 Quadratic programming
 Nonlinear programming
 Mixed integer programming
 Stochastic programming (§ Multistage portfolio optimization)
 Copula (probability theory) (§ Quantitative finance)
 Principal component analysis (§ Quantitative finance)
 Deterministic global optimization
Financial software tools[edit]
 Straight Through Processing Software
 Technical Analysis Software
 Fundamental Analysis Software
 Algorithmic trading
 Electronic trading platform
 List of numerical analysis software
 Comparison of numerical analysis software
Financial institutions[edit]

Bank
 List of banks
 Advising bank
 Central bank
 Commercial bank
 Community development bank
 Cooperative bank
 Custodian bank
 Depository bank
 Ethical bank
 Investment bank
 Islamic banking
 Merchant bank
 Microcredit
 Mutual savings bank
 National bank
 Offshore bank
 Private bank
 Savings bank
 Swiss bank
 Bank holding company
 Building society
 Broker
 Clearing house
 Commercial lender
 Community development financial institution
 Credit rating agency
 Credit union
 Diversified financial
 Edge Act Corporation
 Export Credit Agencies
 Financial adviser
 Financial intermediary
 Financial planner
 Futures exchange
 Government sponsored enterprise
 Hard money lender
 Independent Financial Adviser
 Industrial loan company
 Insurance company
 Investment adviser
 Investment company
 Investment trust
 Large and Complex Financial Institutions
 Mutual fund
 Nonbanking financial company
 Savings and loan association
 Stock exchange
 Trust company
Lists[edit]
 Index of accounting articles
 Outline of business management
 Outline of marketing
 Outline of economics
 Outline of production
 List of international trade topics
 List of business law topics
 List of business theorists
See also[edit]
External links[edit]
 Wharton Finance Knowledge Project – aimed to offer free access to finance knowledge for students, teachers, and selflearners.
 Comprehensive site about topics of financial theory, with a focus in Corporate Finance, Valuation and Investments. Updated Data, Excel Spreadsheets and more. Prof. Aswath Damodaran
 For links to finance web sites, grouped by topic see Web Sites for Discerning Finance Students, Prof. John M. Wachowicz 
 For the introductory finance web site at the University of Arizona, studyfinance.com
 For introductory articles, a full glossary and links to resources on behavioral finance see the BF gallery
 For the law of the financial markets see SECLaw.com
 For various shared blog posts on finance see fwisp.com
 For stock market related financial definitions see TheStreet.com Glossary
 The Finance Director provides access to essential suppliers of financial services and solutions
 Middle East Banking & Finance News — ArabianBusiness.com