Glossary of physics
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angular momentum
(Rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum. It is an important quantity in physics because it is a conserved quantity—the total angular momentum of a closed system remains constant.
angular velocity
Refers to how fast an object rotates or revolves relative to another point, i.e. how fast the angular position or orientation of an object changes with time. There are two types of angular velocity: orbital angular velocity and spin angular velocity. Spin angular velocity refers to how fast a rigid body rotates with respect to its centre of rotation. Orbital angular velocity refers to how fast a rigid body's centre of rotation revolves about a fixed origin, i.e. the time rate of change of its angular position relative to the origin. In general, angular velocity is measured in angle per unit time, e.g. radians per second. The SI unit of angular velocity is expressed as radians/sec with the radian having a dimensionless value of unity, thus the SI units of angular velocity are listed as 1/sec. Angular velocity is usually represented by the symbol omega (ω, sometimes Ω). By convention, positive angular velocity indicates counterclockwise rotation, while negative is clockwise.
anion
A negatively charged ion. Contrast cation.
annihilation
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.^{[15]} The total energy and momentum of the initial pair are conserved in the process and distributed among a set of other particles in the final state. Antiparticles have exactly opposite additive quantum numbers from particles, so the sums of all quantum numbers of such an original pair are zero. Hence, any set of particles may be produced whose total quantum numbers are also zero as long as conservation of energy and conservation of momentum are obeyed.^{[16]}
anode
The electrode through which a conventional electric current flows into a polarized electrical device; the direction of current flow is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow, and so electrons flow out of the anode. In a galvanic cell, the anode is the negative terminal or pole which emits electrons toward the external part of an electrical circuit. However, in an electrolytic cell, the anode is the wire or plate having excess positive charge, so named because negatively charged anions tend to move towards it. Contrast cathode.
antigravity
(Also known as nongravitational field) is a theory of creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit, or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift.
antimatter
antineutron
Is the antiparticle of the neutron with symbol ^{}
_{}n^{}
_{}. It differs from the neutron only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. It has the same mass as the neutron, and no net electric charge, but has opposite baryon number (+1 for neutron, −1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of antiquarks, while neutrons are composed of quarks. The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks.
antiparticle
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge). For example, the antiparticle of the electron is the antielectron (which is often referred to as positron). While the electron has a negative electric charge, the positron has a positive electric charge, and is produced naturally in certain types of radioactive decay. The opposite is also true: the antiparticle of the positron is the electron. Some particles, such as the photon, are their own antiparticle. Otherwise, for each pair of antiparticle partners, one is designated as normal matter (the kind all matter usually interacted with is made of), and the other (usually given the prefix "anti") as antimatter.
antiproton
antiquark
For every quark flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle, known as an antiquark, that differs from the quark only in that some of its properties (such as the electric charge) have equal magnitude but opposite sign.
arc length
Archimedes' principle
States that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body displaces and acts in the upward direction at the center of mass of the displaced fluid.^{[17]}
area moment of inertia
astronomical unit
(Symbol: au,^{[18]}^{[19]}^{[20]} ua,^{[21]} or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that distance varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum (aphelion) to a minimum (perihelion) and back again once a year. Originally conceived as the average of Earth's aphelion and perihelion, since 2012 it has been defined as exactly 149,597,870,700 metres, or about 150 million kilometres (93 million miles).^{[22]} The astronomical unit is used primarily for measuring distances within the Solar System or around other stars. It is also a fundamental component in the definition of another unit of astronomical length, the parsec.
astrophysics
The branch of astronomy that deals with the physics of the Universe, especially with the nature of celestial bodies rather than their positions or motions in space.
attenuation coefficient
atom
A basic unit of matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons.
atomic line filter
atomic mass
atomic mass unit
Onetwelfth the mass of an atom of the isotope ^{12}
_{6}C.
atomic number (Z)
The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. It is most often used to classify elements within the periodic table.
atomic orbital
atomic packing factor
atomic physics
A branch of physics that studies atoms as isolated systems of electrons and an atomic nucleus. Compare nuclear physics.
atomic structure
atomic weight (A)
The sum total of protons (or electrons) and neutrons within an atom.
audio frequency
average speed
Avogadro constant
(6.02214086 × 1023 mol^{−1}) In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after the scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
Avogadro's law
A physical law which states that volumes of gases which are equal to each other at the same temperature and pressure will contain equal numbers of molecules.
Avogadro's number
The number of molecules in exactly 12g of carbon12, equaling 6.022 x 10^{23}.
axion
A hypothetical subatomic particle postulated to account for the rarity of processes that break chargeparity symmetry. It is very light, electrically neutral, and pseudoscalar.
azimuthal quantum number
This glossary of physics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to physics, its subdisciplines, and related fields, including mechanics, materials science, nuclear physics, particle physics, and thermodynamics.
For more inclusive glossaries concerning related fields of science and technology, see Glossary of chemistry terms, Glossary of astronomy, Glossary of areas of mathematics, and Glossary of engineering.
Physics 

 ab initio
 A mathematical model which seeks to describe atomic nuclei by solving the nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation for all constituent nucleons and the forces that exist between them. Such methods yield precise results for very light nuclei but become more approximate for heavier nuclei.
 Abbe number
 In optics and lens design, a measure of a transparent material's dispersion (a variation of refractive index versus wavelength). High values of V indicate low dispersion.
 absolute electrode potential
 In electrochemistry, the electrode potential of a metal measured with respect to a universal reference system (without any additional metal–solution interface).
 absolute humidity
 The ratio of the water vapor in a sample of air to the volume of the sample.
 absolute magnitude
 Is a measure of the luminosity of a celestial object, on a logarithmic astronomical magnitude scale. An object's absolute magnitude is defined to be equal to the apparent magnitude that the object would have if it were viewed from a distance of exactly 10 parsecs (32.6 lightyears), with no extinction (or dimming) of its light due to absorption by interstellar dust particles.
 absolute motion
 absolute pressure
 Is zeroreferenced against a perfect vacuum, using an absolute scale, so it is equal to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
 absolute scale
 Is a system of measurement that begins at a minimum, or zero point, and progresses in only one direction. An absolute scale differs from an arbitrary, or "relative," scale, which begins at some point selected by a person and can progress in both directions. An absolute scale begins at a natural minimum, leaving only one direction in which to progress.
 absolute zero
 The theoretical lowest possible temperature, understood by international agreement as equivalent to 0 Kelvin or −273.15 °C (−459.67 °F). More formally, it is the theoretical lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, at which enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum values and the fundamental particles of nature have minimal vibrational motion.
 absorption spectroscopy
 Refers to spectroscopic techniques that measure the absorption of radiation, as a function of frequency or wavelength, due to its interaction with a sample. The sample absorbs energy, i.e., photons, from the radiating field. The intensity of the absorption varies as a function of frequency, and this variation is the absorption spectrum. Absorption spectroscopy is performed across the electromagnetic spectrum.
 absorptivity
 accelerating expansion of the universe
 Is the observation that the expansion of the universe is such that the velocity at which a distant galaxy is receding from the observer is continuously increasing with time.^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}
 acceleration
 The rate at which the velocity of a body changes with time.
 acceleration due to gravity
 The acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.
 accelerometer
 An instrument used to measure the proper acceleration of a body irrespective of other forces.
 acoustics
 The branch of physics dealing with the production, transmission and effects of sound.
 adhesion
 The tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another. Contrast cohesion.
 adiabatic cooling
 adiabatic heating
 adiabatic process
 Occurs without transfer of heat or mass of substances between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings. In an adiabatic process, energy is transferred to the surroundings only as work.^{[5]}^{[6]} The adiabatic process provides a rigorous conceptual basis for the theory used to expound the first law of thermodynamics, and as such it is a key concept in thermodynamics.
 aerodynamics
 Is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It is a subfield of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, and many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields.
 afocal system
 In optics an afocal system (a system without focus) is an optical system that produces no net convergence or divergence of the beam, i.e. has an infinite effective focal length.^{[7]} This type of system can be created with a pair of optical elements where the distance between the elements is equal to the sum of each element's focal length (d = f_{1}+f_{2}).
 air mass (astronomy)
 In astronomy, air mass or airmass is the "amount of air that one is looking through"^{[8]} when seeing a star or other celestial source below Earth's atmosphere. It is formulated as the integral of air density along the light ray.
 air mass (meteorology)
 In meteorology, an air mass is a volume of air defined by its temperature and water vapor content. Air masses cover many hundreds or thousands of miles and adapt to the characteristics of the surface below them. They are classified according to latitude and their continental or maritime source regions. Colder air masses are termed polar or arctic, while warmer air masses are deemed tropical. Continental and superior air masses are dry while maritime and monsoon air masses are moist. Weather fronts separate air masses with different density (temperature and/or moisture) characteristics. Once an air mass moves away from its source region, underlying vegetation and water bodies can quickly modify its character. Classification schemes tackle an air mass' characteristics, as well as modification.
 air mass coefficient
 Defines the direct optical path length through the Earth's atmosphere, expressed as a ratio relative to the path length vertically upwards, i.e. at the zenith. The air mass coefficient can be used to help characterize the solar spectrum after solar radiation has traveled through the atmosphere.
 albedo
 The fraction of the total light incident on a reflecting surface, especially a celestial body, which is reflected back in all directions.
 alloy
 A chemical mixture of a metal with one or more other metals or other elements.
 alpha decay
 Or αdecay, is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into a different atomic nucleus, with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two. An alpha particle is identical to the nucleus of a helium4 atom, which consists of two protons and two neutrons. It has a charge of +2 e and a mass of 4 u.
 alpha particle (α)
 A type of subatomic particle consisting of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to the nucleus of a helium4 ion. Alpha particles are classically produced in the process of radioactive alpha decay, but may also be produced in other ways and given the same name.
 alternating current (AC)
 A form of electric current in which the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. Contrast direct current.
 ammeter
 An instrument that is used to measure electric current.
 amorphous solid
 A type of solid which does not have a definite geometrical shape. Or its noncrystalline solid.
 ampere (A)
 The SI base unit of electric current, defined as one coulomb of electric charge per second.
 amplifier
 An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a timevarying voltage or current). It is a twoport electronic circuit that uses electric power from a power supply to increase the amplitude of a signal applied to its input terminals, producing a proportionally greater amplitude signal at its output. The amount of amplification provided by an amplifier is measured by its gain: the ratio of output voltage, current, or power to input. An amplifier is a circuit that has a power gain greater than one.^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]}
 amplitude
 The height of a wave measured from its center (normal) position.
 angle of incidence
 In geometric optics, the angle of incidence is the angle between a ray incident on a surface and the line perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence, called the normal. The ray can be formed by any wave: optical, acoustic, microwave, Xray, etc.
 angle of reflection
 Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. The law of reflection says that for specular reflection the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. Mirrors exhibit specular reflection.
 ångström (Å)
 A unit of length primarily used to measure subatomic particles that is equal to 10^{−10} meters (one tenbillionth of a meter) or 0.1 nanometers.
 angular acceleration
 Is the time rate of change of angular velocity. In three dimensions, it is a pseudovector. In SI units, it is measured in radians per second squared (rad/s^{2}), and is usually denoted by the Greek letter alpha (α).^{[12]}. Just like angular velocity, there are two types of angular acceleration: spin angular acceleration and orbital angular acceleration, representing the time rate of change of spin angular velocity and orbital angular velocity respectively. Unlike linear acceleration, angular acceleration need not be caused by a net external torque. For example, a figure skater can speed up her rotation (thereby obtaining an angular acceleration) simply by contracting her arms inwards, which involves no external torque.
 angular displacement
 Angular displacement of a body is the angle in radians (degrees, revolutions) through which a point revolves around a centre or line has been rotated in a specified sense about a specified axis.
 angular frequency
 Angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate. It refers to the angular displacement per unit time (e.g., in rotation) or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform (e.g., in oscillations and waves), or as the rate of change of the argument of the sine function.
Angular frequency (or angular speed) is the magnitude of the vector quantity angular velocity. The term angular frequency vector is sometimes used as a synonym for the vector quantity angular velocity.^{[13]}
One revolution is equal to 2π radians, hence^{[13]}^{[14]}
 ω is the angular frequency or angular speed (measured in radians per second),
 T is the period (measured in seconds),
 f is the ordinary frequency (measured in hertz) (sometimes symbolised with ν).
_{}n^{}
_{}. It differs from the neutron only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. It has the same mass as the neutron, and no net electric charge, but has opposite baryon number (+1 for neutron, −1 for the antineutron). This is because the antineutron is composed of antiquarks, while neutrons are composed of quarks. The antineutron consists of one up antiquark and two down antiquarks.
_{6}C.
B[edit]
 Babinet's principle
 A theorem concerning diffraction which states that the diffraction pattern from an opaque body is identical to that from a hole of the same size and shape except for the overall forward beam intensity.
 background radiation
 The ubiquitous ionising radiation to which the general population is exposed.
 ballistics
 Balmer series
 Or Balmer lines, in atomic physics, is one of a set of six named series describing the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom. The Balmer series is calculated using the Balmer formula, an empirical equation discovered by Johann Balmer in 1885.
 barometer
 A scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure. Pressure tendency can forecast shortterm changes in the weather.
 baryon
 A subatomic particle such as a proton or a neutron, made of (usually) three quarks. Nearly all matter you are likely to encounter is baryonic matter.
 battery
 A combination of two or more electrical cells which produces electricity.
 beam
 A structural element that is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting bending.Beams are traditionally descriptions of building or civil engineering structural elements, but smaller structures such as truck or automobile frames, machine frames, and other mechanical or structural systems contain beam structures that are designed and analyzed in a similar fashion.
 bending
 The behavior of a slender structural element subjected to an external load applied perpendicularly to a longitudinal axis of the element.
 bending moment
 Is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or moment is applied to the element causing the element to bend.^{[23]}^{[24]} The most common or simplest structural element subjected to bending moments is the beam.
 Bernoulli equation
 Bernoulli's principle
 In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.^{[25]}^{(Ch.3)}^{[26]}^{(§ 3.5)}
 Bessel function
 Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are canonical solutions y(x) of Bessel's differential equation
 beta decay
 In nuclear physics, beta decay (βdecay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (fast energetic electron or positron) is emitted from an atomic nucleus, transforming the original nuclide to its isobar.
 beta particle
 A highenergy, highspeed electron or positron emitted by certain types of radioactive atomic nuclei.
 Big Bang
 The prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe.
 binding energy
 The mechanical energy required to disassemble a whole into separate parts. A bound system typically has a lower potential energy than the sum of its constituent parts.
 binomial random variable
 biocatalysis
 biophysics
 An interdisciplinary science using methods of and theories from physics to study biological systems.
 black body
 A hypothetical idealized physical body that completely absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence. Perfect black bodies are imagined as substitutes for actual physical bodies in many theoretical discussions of thermodynamics, and the construction of nearly perfect black bodies in the real world remains a topic of interest for materials engineers. Contrast white body.
 blackbody radiation
 The type of electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and nonreflective body) held at constant, uniform temperature. The radiation has a specific spectrum and intensity that depends only on the temperature of the body.
 block and tackle
 A system of two or more pulleys with a rope or cable threaded between them, usually used to lift or pull heavy loads.
 Bohr model
 boiling point
 The temperature at which a liquid undergoes a phase change into a gas; the vapour pressure of liquid and gas are equal at this temperature.
 boiling point elevation
 Describes the phenomenon that the boiling point of a liquid (a solvent) will be higher when another compound is added, meaning that a solution has a higher boiling point than a pure solvent. This happens whenever a nonvolatile solute, such as a salt, is added to a pure solvent, such as water. The boiling point can be measured accurately using an ebullioscope.
 Boltzmann constant
 A physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of the particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas. It is the gas constant R divided by the Avogadro constant NA.
 Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC)
 boson
 A type of particle that behaves according to Bose–Einstein statistics and possesses integer spin. Bosons include elementary particles such as photons, gluons, W and Z bosons, Higgs bosons, and the hypothetical graviton, as well as certain composite particles such as mesons and stable nuclides of even mass number. Bosons constitute one of two main classes of particles, the other being fermions. Unlike fermions, there is no limit to the number of bosons that can occupy the same quantum state.
 Boyle's law
 The volume of a given mass of a gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure.
 Bra–ket notation
 Bragg's law
 bremsstrahlung
 Radiation emitted by the acceleration of unbound charged particles.
 Brewster's angle
 british thermal unit (btu)
 An Imperial unit of energy defined as the amount of energy needed to heat one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit; 1 btu is equal to about 1055 joules. In scientific contexts the btu has largely been replaced by the SI unit of energy, the joule.
 brittleness
 The tendency of a material to break without significant plastic deformation when subjected to stress. Brittle materials absorb relatively little energy prior to fracture, even those of high strength. Breaking is often accompanied by a snapping sound.
 Brownian motion
 The presumably random movement of particles suspended in a fluid (liquid or gas) resulting from their bombardment by the fastmoving atoms or molecules in the gas or liquid.
 Bulk modulus
 A measure of a substance's resistance to uniform compression defined as the ratio of the infinitesimal pressure increase to the resulting relative decrease of the volume. Its base unit is the pascal.
 buoyancy
 An upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
C[edit]
 calculus
 A branch of mathematics that studies change and has two major subfields: differential calculus (concerning rates of change and slopes of curves), and integral calculus (concerning accumulation of quantities and the areas under and between curves). These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus.
 capacitance
 Is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: self capacitance and mutual capacitance. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits self capacitance. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of mutual capacitance is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components (along with resistors and inductors).
 capacitive reactance
 A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by an insulator, also known as a dielectric. Capacitive reactance is an opposition to the change of voltage across an element. Capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the signal frequency (or angular frequency ω) and the capacitance .^{[27]}
 Carnot cycle
 Cartesian coordinates
 cathode
 The electrode through which a conventional electric current flows out of a polarized electrical device; the direction of current flow is, by convention, opposite to the direction of electron flow, and so electrons flow into the cathode. In a galvanic cell, the cathode is the positive terminal or pole which accepts electrons flowing from the external part of an electrical circuit. However, in an electrolytic cell, the cathode is the wire or plate having excess negative charge, so named because positively charged cations tend to move towards it. Contrast anode.
 cathode ray
 cation
 A positively charged ion. Contrast anion.
 celestial mechanics
 Celsius scale
 A scale and unit of measurement of temperature, also known as Centigrade.
 center of curvature
 center of gravity
 The point in a body around which the resultant torque due to gravity forces vanish. Near the surface of the earth, where the gravity acts downward as a parallel force field, the center of gravity and the center of mass are the same.
 center of mass
 A distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero.
 center of pressure
 centigrade
 A scale and unit of measurement of temperature, also known as Celsius.
 central force motion
 central limit theorem
 centrifugal force
 The apparent outward force that draws a rotating body away from the centre of rotation. It is caused by the inertia of the body as the body's path is continually redirected.
 centripetal force
 A force which keeps a body moving with a uniform speed along a circular path and is directed along the radius towards the centre.
 cGh physics
 chain reaction
 A sequence of reactions in which a reactive product or byproduct causes additional similar reactions to take place.
 change of base rule
 charge carrier
 chemical physics
 A branch of chemistry and physics that studies chemical processes from the point of view of physics by investigating physicochemical phenomena using techniques from atomic and molecular physics and condensed matter physics.
 chromatic aberration
 circular motion
 classical mechanics
 A subfield of mechanics concerned with the set of physical laws describing the motion of bodies under the collective actions of a system of forces.
 coefficient of friction
 coherence
 cohesion
 The tendency of similar particles or surfaces to cling to one another. Contrast adhesion.
 cold fusion
 complex harmonic motion
 composite particle
 Compton scattering
 concave lens
 condensation point
 condensed matter physics
 A branch of physics that studies the physical properties of condensed phases of matter.
 conservation of momentum
 conservation law
 constructive interference
 continuous spectrum
 continuum mechanics
 convection
 The transfer of heat by the actual transfer of matter.
 convex lens
 coulomb (C)
 The SI derived unit of electric charge, defined as the charge transported by a constant current of one ampere in one second.
 Coulomb's law
 converging lens
 cosmic background radiation
 covalent bond
 creep
 crest
 The point on a wave with the maximum value or upward displacement within a cycle.
 crest factor
 critical angle
 critical mass
 The smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
 Curie temperature
 current density
 current length
 curvilinear motion
 cyclotron
 A type of particle accelerator in which charged particles accelerate outwards from the center along a spiral path.
D[edit]
 Dalton's law
 damped vibration
 damping
 Darcy–Weisbach equation
 dark energy
 dark matter
 DC motor
 A mechanically commutated electric motor powered by direct current.
 decibel
 definite integral
 deflection
 The degree to which a structural element is displaced under a load. It may refer to an angle or a distance.
 deformation
 1. (mechanics)
 2. (engineering)
 density
 A physical property of a substance defined as its mass per unit volume.
 derivative
 desert
 destructive interference
 diamagnetism
 dielectric
 diffraction
 direct current (DC)
 dispersion
 displacement (fluid)
 Occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place. The volume of the fluid displaced can then be measured, and from this the volume of the immersed object can be deduced (the volume of the immersed object will be exactly equal to the volume of the displaced fluid).
 displacement (vector)
 The shortest distance from the initial to the final position of a point. Thus, it is the length of an imaginary straight path, typically distinct from the path actually travelled by.
 distance
 A numerical description of how far apart objects are.
 drift velocity
 Doppler effect
 The change in frequency of a wave (or other periodic event) for an observer moving relative to its source.The received frequency is higher (compared to the emitted frequency) during the approach, it is identical at the instant of passing by, and it is lower during the recession.
 drag
 Forces which act on a solid object in the direction of the relative fluid flow velocity. Unlike other resistive forces, such as dry friction, which is nearly independent of velocity, drag forces depend on velocity.
 ductility
 A solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire.
 dynamics
 The branch of classical mechanics that studies forces and torques and their effects on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies motion without reference to these forces.
 dyne
E[edit]
 econophysics
 elastic collision
 elastic energy
 elastic instability
 elastic modulus
 elasticity
 The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after it is deformed.
 electric charge
 A physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when near other electrically charged matter. There are two types of electric charge: positive and negative.
 electric circuit
 An electrical network consisting of a closed loop, giving a return path for the current.
 electric current
 A flow of electric charge through a conductive medium.
 electric displacement field
 electric field
 The region of space surrounding electrically charged particles and timevarying magnetic fields. The electric field depicts the force exerted on other electrically charged objects by the electrically charged particle the field is surrounding.
 electric field gradient
 electric field intensity
 electric generator
 electric motor
 electric potential
 electric power
 The rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
 electrical conductor
 Any material which contains movable electric charges and therefore can conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field.
 electrical insulator
 Any material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely and which therefore does not conduct an electric current under the influence of an electric field.
 electrical potential energy
 electrical and electronics engineering
 electrical network
 An interconnection of electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, voltage sources, current sources and switches.
 electrical resistance
 The opposition to the passage of an electric current through an electrical element.
 electricity
 The set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and flow of electric charge.
 electrooptic effect
 electrochemical cell
 electrodynamics
 electrolytic cell
 electromagnet
 A type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of electric current.
 electromagnetic field
 A physical field produced by moving electrically charged objects.
 electromagnetic induction
 electromagnetic radiation
 A form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, which exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space.
 electromagnetic spectrum
 electromagnetic wave equation
 electromagnetism
 electromechanics
 electromotive force ()
 The electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator and measured in volts. Any device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy provides electromotive force as its output.
 electron
 A subatomic particle with a negative elementary electric charge.
 electron capture
 electron cloud
 electron pair
 electron paramagnetic resonance
 A method for studying materials with unpaired electrons which makes use of the Zeeman effect. It shares some basic principles with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
 electronvolt (eV)
 A unit of energy equal to approximately 1.6×10^{−19} joule. By definition, it is the amount of energy gained by the charge of a single electron moved across an electric potential difference of one volt.
 electronegativity
 A chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
 electronics
 A field that deals with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies.
 electrostatics
 electrostriction
 elementary charge
 elementary particle
 emission spectrum
 emissivity
 energy
 The ability to do work.
 energy level
 endothermic
 An adjective used to refer to a process or reaction in which a system absorbs energy from its surroundings, usually in the form of heat but also in the form of light, electricity, or sound. Contrast exothermic.
 engineering physics
 enthalpy
 entropy
 A quantity which describes the randomness of a substance or system.
 equilibrant force
 equipartition
 escape velocity
 The velocity at which the kinetic energy plus the gravitational potential energy of an object is zero. It is the speed needed to "escape" from a gravitational field without further propulsion.
 excited state
 exothermic
 An adjective used to refer to a process or reaction that releases energy from a system, usually in the form of heat but also in the form of light, electricity, or sound. Contrast endothermic.
 experimental physics
F[edit]
 farad
 falling bodies
 Objects that are moving towards a body with greater gravitational influence, such as a planet.
 faraday
 Faraday constant
 Fermat's principle
 Fermi surface
 fermion
 A type of particle that behaves according to Fermi–Dirac statistics, obeys the Pauli exclusion principle, and possesses halfinteger spin. Fermions include all quarks and leptons, as well as all composite particles made of an odd number of these (such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei). Fermions constitute one of two main classes of particles, the other being bosons.
 ferrimagnetism
 ferromagnetism
 field line
 FIRST
 An organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989 in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields.
 first law of thermodynamics
 fission
 Either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei), often producing free neutrons and photons (in the form of gamma rays), and releasing a, relatively, very large amount of energy.
 flavour
 fluid
 fluid mechanics
 fluid physics
 fluid statics
 fluorescence
 flux
 flux density
 focal length
 focus
 force (F)
 Any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of a physical body. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector quantity. The SI unit used to measure force is the newton.
 force carrier
 frame of reference
 Fraunhofer lines
 free body diagram
 frequency
 frequency modulation
 free fall
 Any motion of a body where its own weight is the only force acting upon it.
 freezing point
 The temperature at which a substance changes state from liquid to solid.
 friction
 function
 fundamental forces
 fundamental frequency
 fundamental theorem of calculus
 fusion
 A nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus.
G[edit]
 gamma ray
 A form of electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and therefore high energy.
 gas
 general relativity
 geophysics
 gluon
 Graham's law of diffusion
 gravitation
 A natural phenomenon by which physical bodies attract each other with a force proportional to their masses.
 gravitational constant (G)
 A physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational force between two bodies.
 gravitational energy
 The potential energy associated with the gravitational field.
 gravitational field
 A model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body. Thus, a gravitational field is used to explain gravitational phenomena. It is measured in newtons per kilogram (N/kg).
 gravitational potential
 The gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that is done by the force of gravity to move an object to a fixed reference location.
 gravitational wave
 A ripple in the curvature of spacetime that propagates as a wave and is generated in certain gravitational interactions, travelling outward from their source.
 graviton
 gravity
 See gravitation.
 ground
 ground reaction force
 ground state
 group velocity
H[edit]
 hadron
 halflife
 The time required for a quantity to fall to half its value as measured at the beginning of the time period. In physics, halflife typically refers to a property of radioactive decay, but may be refer to any quantity which follows an exponential decay.
 Hamilton's principle
 Hamiltonian mechanics
 harmonic mean
 heat
 A form of energy transferred from one body to another by thermal interaction.
 heat transfer
 Helmholtz free energy
 Henderson–Hasselbalch equation
 Henry's law
 hertz
 The SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon.
 Higgs boson
 homeokinetics
 The physics of complex, selforganizing systems.
 horsepower
 Huygens–Fresnel principle
 hydrostatics
I[edit]
 ice point
 A physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a liquid to a solid.
 impedance
 The measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
 indefinite integral
 inductance
 infrasound
 inertia
 The resistance of any physical object to a change in its state of motion or rest, or the tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion.
 inductive reactance
 integral
 integral transform
 International System of Units
 The International System of Units (abbreviated SI) is the modern form of the metric system. It comprises a system of units of measurement devised around seven base units and the convenience of the number ten.
 invariant mass
 ion
 An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom a net positive or negative electric charge.
 ionic bond
 A type of chemical bond formed through an electrostatic attraction between two oppositely charged ions.
 ionization
 The process of converting an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or removing charged particles such as electrons or other ions.
 ionization chamber
 ionizing radiation
 isotope
 A variant of a particular chemical element. While all isotopes of a given element share the same number of protons, each isotope differs from the others in its number of neutrons.
J[edit]
 Josephson effect
 joule
 A derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units.
K[edit]
 Kelvin
 A scale and unit of measurement of temperature. The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale which uses absolute zero as its null point.
 kinematics
 The branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects) and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without consideration of the causes of motion. The study of kinematics is often referred to as the "geometry of motion".
 kinetic energy
 The energy that a physical body possesses due to its motion, defined as the work needed to accelerate a body of a given mass from rest to its stated velocity. The body continues to maintain this kinetic energy unless its velocity changes. Contrast potential energy.
 Kirchhoff's circuit laws
 Two approximate equalities that deal with the current and voltage in electrical circuits.also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws (see also Kirchhoff's laws for other meanings of that term).
 Kirchhoff's equations
 In fluid dynamics, the Kirchhoff equations describe the motion of a rigid body in an ideal fluid.
L[edit]
 Lagrangian mechanics
 laminar flow
 Occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers with no disruption between the layers.
 Laplace transform
 Laplace–Runge–Lenz vector
 A vector used chiefly to describe the shape and orientation of the orbit of one astronomical body around another, such as a planet revolving around a star. For two bodies interacting by Newtonian gravity, the LRL vector is a constant of motion, meaning that it is the same no matter where it is calculated on the orbit; equivalently, the LRL vector is said to be conserved.
 laser
 law of universal gravitation
 LC circuit
 Lenz's law
 lepton
 An elementary particle which does not undergo strong interactions but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle. Two main classes of leptons exist: charged leptons (also known as the electronlike leptons) and neutral leptons (better known as neutrinos).
 lever
 A type of machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge or fulcrum; one of six classical simple machines.
 light
 A form of electromagnetic radiation that occupies a certain range of wavelengths within the electromagnetic spectrum. In physics, the term sometimes refers collectively to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, in which case light includes gamma rays, Xrays, microwaves, and radio waves, but in common usage "light" more often refers specifically to visible light.
 linear actuator
 A form of motor that generates a linear movement directly.
 linear algebra
 The branch of mathematics concerning vector spaces, often finite or countably infinite dimensional, as well as linear mappings between such spaces.
 line of force
 linear elasticity
 The mathematical study of how solid objects deform and become internally stressed due to prescribed loading conditions. Linear elasticity is a simplification of the more general nonlinear theory of elasticity and is a branch of continuum mechanics.
 Liouville's theorem
 Phase space volume is conserved.
 liquid
 One of four classical states of matter having a definite volume but no fixed shape.
 liquid crystal (LC)
 A matter in a state that has properties between those of a conventional liquid and those of a solid crystal. For instance, an LC may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystallike way.
 longitudinal wave
M[edit]
 Mtheory
 An extension of string theory that attempts to unify seemingly contradictory mathematical formulations and which identifies 11 dimensions.
 Mach number
 A dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of the speed of an object moving through a fluid to the local speed of sound.
 machine
 Any powered tool consisting of one or more parts that is constructed to achieve a particular goal. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal or electrical means, and are frequently motorised.
 machine element
 An elementary component of a machine. There are three basic types: structural components, mechanisms and control components.
 Maclaurin series
 A representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.
 magnetic field
 A mathematical description of the magnetic influence of electric currents and magnetic materials. The magnetic field at any given point is specified by both a direction and a magnitude (or strength); as such it is a vector field.
 magnetism
 A property of materials that respond to an applied magnetic field.
 magnetostatics
 mass
 mass balance
 An application of the law of conservation of mass to the analysis of physical systems.
 mass density
 See density.
 mass flux
 The rate of mass flow per unit area. The common symbols are j, J, φ, or Φ, sometimes with subscript m to indicate mass is the flowing quantity. Its SI units are kg s−1 m−2.
 mass moment of inertia
 A property of a distribution of mass in space that measures its resistance to rotational acceleration about an axis.
 mass number
 The total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus.
 mass spectrometry
 material properties
 materials science
 An interdisciplinary field incorporating elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering that is concerned with the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids.
 mathematical physics
 The application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories.
 mathematics
 The abstract study of topics encompassing quantity, structure, space, change, and other properties.
 matrix
 A rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions arranged in rows and columns. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries.
 matter
 Any substance (often a particle) that has rest mass and (usually) also volume.
 Maxwell's equations
 A set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits. Maxwell's equations describe how electric and magnetic fields are generated and altered by each other and by charges and currents.
 measure of central tendency
 A term which relates to the way in which quantitative data tend to cluster around some value. A measure of central tendency is any of a number of ways of specifying this "central value".
 mechanical energy
 mechanical filter
 mechanical equilibrium
 mechanical wave
 mechanics
 The branch of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
 melting
 A physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
 meson
 A type of hadronic subatomic particle composed of one quark and one antiquark bound together by the strong interaction. All mesons are unstable, with the longestlived lasting for only a few hundredths of a microsecond.
 modulus of elasticity
 The mathematical description of an object's or substance's tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., nonpermanently) when a force is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress–strain curve in the elastic deformation region. As such, a stiffer material will have a higher elastic modulus.
 molar concentration
 molar mass
 A physical property of matter defined as the mass of a given substance divided by the amount of substance and expressed in grams per mole.
 molecule
 An electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by covalent chemical bonds. Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge.
 molecular physics
 A branch of physics that studies the physical properties of molecules and the chemical bonds between atoms as well as their molecular dynamics. It is closely related to atomic physics and overlaps greatly with theoretical chemistry, physical chemistry and chemical physics.
 moment
 moment of inertia
 A property of a distribution of mass in space that measures its resistance to rotational acceleration about an axis.
 monochromatic light
 motion
 Any change in the position of an object over time. Motion can be mathematically described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, speed, acceleration, and momentum, and is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in an object's position relative to that frame. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force.
 muon
 An elementary particle, technically classified as a lepton, that is similar to the electron, with unitary negative electric charge (−1) and a spin of 1⁄2. Muons are not believed to have any substructure.
N[edit]
 nanoengineering
 The practice of engineering on the nanoscale. Nanoengineering is largely a synonym for nanotechnology, but emphasizes the applied rather than the pure science aspects of the field.
 nanotechnology
 The manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. A more generalized description of nanotechnology is "the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometers".
 neurophysics
 neutrino
 A type of electrically neutral subatomic particle denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu). All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but that their mass is tiny even by the standards of subatomic particles. Their mass has never been measured accurately.
 neutron
 neutron crosssection
 newton (N)
 Newton's laws of motion
 A set of three physical laws which describe the relationship between the forces acting on a body and its motion due to those forces. Together they form the basis for classical or Newtonian mechanics.
 Newton's law of universal gravitation
 Newtonian fluid
 Newtonian mechanics
 normal force
 nth root
 nuclear force
 nuclear physics
 The branch of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.
 nuclear reaction
 nuclear transmutation
 nucleon
 Either a proton or a neutron in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.
 nucleus
 nuclide
 An atomic species characterized by the specific composition of its nucleus, i.e. by its number of protons, its number of neutrons, and its nuclear energy state.
O[edit]
 Ohm
 The SI derived unit of electrical resistance.
 Ohm's law
 States that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points.
 optical tweezers
 An optomechanical device used for the capture, analysis and manipulation of dielectric objects or particles, which operates via the application of force by the electric field of light.
 optically detected magnetic resonance
 An optical technique for the initialisation and readout of quantum spin in some crystal defects.
 optics
 The branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light; however, because light is one of several forms of electromagnetic radiation, other forms such as Xrays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.
P[edit]
 paraffin
 parallel circuit
 parity
 1. (mathematics)
 2. (physics)
 particle
 particle accelerator
 particle displacement
 particle physics
 A branch of physics that studies the nature of particles, which are the constituents of what is usually referred to as matter and radiation.
 Pascal's law
 A principle in fluid mechanics which states that pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted equally in all directions throughout the fluid such that the initial pressure variations remain the same.
 Pauli exclusion principle
 pendulum
 periodic table of the elements
 A tabular display of the chemical elements organised on the basis of their atomic numbers, electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties. Elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number (number of protons).
 phase (matter)
 phase (waves)
 phase equilibrium
 phenomenology
 phosphorescence
 photoelectric effect
 photon
 An elementary particle, the quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.
 photonics
 physical chemistry
 The study of macroscopic, atomic, subatomic, and particulate phenomena in chemical systems in terms of laws and concepts of physics.
 physical constant
 physical quantity
 physics
 The natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.
 piezoelectricity
 pion
 Planck constant (h)
 A physical constant that is the quantum of action in quantum mechanics.
 Planck units
 Planck's law
 plasma
 plasma physics
 plasticity
 pneumatics
 The study and control of mechanical force and movement generated by the application of compressed gas.
 positron
 potential energy
 power
 pressure
 The ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed.
 probability
 A measure of the expectation that an event will occur or that a statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 (will not occur) and 1 (will occur). The higher the probability of an event, the more certain one can be that the event will occur.
 probability distribution
 probability theory
 proton
 psi particle
 pulley
 A wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement of a cable or belt along its circumference; one of six classical simple machines. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and transmit power.
 pulse
 pulse wave
Q[edit]
 quantization
 quantum
 quantum chromodynamics
 quantum electrodynamics
 The relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. In essence, it describes how light and matter interact and is the first theory where full agreement between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved. QED mathematically describes all phenomena involving electrically charged particles interacting by means of exchange of photons and represents the quantum counterpart of classical electromagnetism, giving a complete account of matter and light interaction.
 quantum field theory
 A theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
 quantum gravity
 quantum mechanics
 A branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena at microscopic scales, where the action is on the order of the Planck constant. Quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the quantum realm of atomic and subatomic length scales. Quantum mechanics provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particlelike and wavelike behavior and interactions of energy and matter.
 quantum number
 quantum physics
 quantum state
 quark
 An elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, the components of atomic nuclei.
 quasiparticle
R[edit]
 radiant energy
 radiation
 radioactive decay
 radionuclide
 Any nuclide possessing excess nuclear energy to the point that it is unstable. Such excess energy is emitted through any of several processes of radioactive decay, resulting in a stable nuclide or sometimes another unstable radionuclide which can then undergo further decay. Certain radionuclides can occur naturally; many others can be produced artificially in nuclear reactors, cyclotrons, particle accelerators, or radionuclide generators.
 radius of curvature
 redshift
 A phenomenon which occurs when light seen coming from an object that is moving away is proportionally increased in wavelength or "shifted" to the red end of the visible light spectrum.
 refraction
 The change in direction of a wave as it passes from one transmission medium to another or as a result of a gradual change in the medium. Though most commonly used in the context of refraction of light, other waves such as sound waves and fluid waves also experience refraction.
 refractive index
 relative atomic mass
 relativistic mechanics
 rigid body
 An idealization of a solid body in which deformation is neglected. In other words, the distance between any two given points of a rigid body remains constant in time regardless of the external forces exerted on it. Even though such an object cannot physically exist due to relativity, objects can normally be assumed to be perfectly rigid if they are not moving near the speed of light.
 rotational energy
 The kinetic energy due to the rotation of an object and forms part of its total kinetic energy.
 rotational speed
 The number of complete rotations or revolutions a rotating body makes per unit time.
 Rydberg formula
 A formula used in atomic physics to describe the wavelengths of spectral lines of many chemical elements.
S[edit]
 scalar
 Any simple physical quantity that can be described by a single number (as opposed to vectors, tensors, etc., which are described by several numbers such as magnitude and direction) and is unchanged by coordinate system rotations or translations (in Newtonian mechanics) or by Lorentz transformations or centraltime translations (in relativity).
 scattering
 The general physical process by which some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localised nonuniformities in the medium through which they pass.
 science
 A systematic enterprise that builds and organises knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.
 screw
 A mechanism that converts rotational motion to linear motion, and a torque (rotational force) to a linear force; one of six classical simple machines.
 second law of thermodynamics
 Seebeck effect
 series circuit
 shadow matter
 shear modulus
 shear strength
 shear stress
 shortwave radiation
 Schrödinger equation
 A mathematical equation which describes the time evolution of wave functions in quantum mechanics.
 simple harmonic motion
 simple machine
 A mechanical device that changes the direction or magnitude of a force. In general, a set of six classical simple machines identified by Renaissance scientists drawing from Greek texts on technology are collectively defined as the simplest mechanisms that can provide mechanical advantage (also called leverage).
 siphon
 A tube in an inverted U shape that causes a liquid to flow uphill without pumps, powered by the fall of the liquid as it flows down the tube under the pull of gravity. The term may also more generally refer to a wide variety of devices involving the flow of liquids through tubes.
 Snell's law
 solar cell
 solid
 solid mechanics
 solidstate physics
 solubility
 The tendency of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance (called a solute) to dissolve in another solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (called a solvent) to form a homogeneous solution of the solute in the solvent. The solubility of a solute fundamentally depends on the specific solvent as well as on temperature and pressure.
 sound
 A mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas and composed of frequencies within the range of human hearing.
 special relativity
 specific activity
 speed
 speed of light (c)
 A universal physical constant defined as exactly 299,792,458 metres per second, a figure that is exact because the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time. When not otherwise qualified, the term "speed of light" usually refers to the speed of light in a vacuum as opposed to the speed of light through some physical medium.
 speed of sound
 spherical aberration
 spin quantum number
 stable isotope ratio
 stable nuclide
 Any nuclide that is not radioactive and does not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay, as opposed to a radionuclide. When such nuclides are referred to in relation to specific elements, they are usually termed stable isotopes.
 standard atomic weight
 Standard Model
 The theory of particle physics which describes three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic force, the weak force, and the strong force, but not the gravitational force) and classifies all known elementary particles.
 standing wave
 state of matter
 statics
 The branch of mechanics concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") on physical systems in static equilibrium, that is, in a state where the relative positions of subsystems do not vary over time, or where components and structures are at a constant velocity.
 statistical mechanics
 stiffness
 The rigidity of an object — the extent to which it resists deformation in response to an applied force.
 strain
 The transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.[1] A configuration is a set containing the positions of all particles of the body.
 strain hardening
 strength of materials
 stress
 1. An applied force or system of forces that tends to strain or deform a physical body.
 2. A measure of the internal forces acting within a deformable body.
 3. A quantitative measure of the average force per unit area of a surface within a body on which internal forces act.
 stress–strain curve
 string duality
 string theory
 structural load
 subatomic particle
 Any particle that is smaller than an atom.
 sublimation
 The process of transformation directly from the solid phase to the gas phase without passing through an intermediate liquid phase. Sublimation is an endothermic phase transition that occurs at temperatures and pressures below a substance's triple point in its phase diagram.
 superconductivity
 superconductor
 A phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
 superhard material
 superposition principle
 supersymmetry (SUSY)
 surface tension
T[edit]
 temperature
 A physical property of matter that quantitatively expresses the common notions of hot and cold.
 tensile modulus
 tensile strength
 tesla (T)
 test particle
 theoretical physics
 theory of everything
 theory of relativity
 thermal conduction
 thermal equilibrium
 A state in which there is no net flow of thermal energy between two physical systems when the systems are connected by a path permeable to heat. A system may also be said to be in thermal equilibrium with itself if the temperature within the system is spatially and temporally uniform. Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are always in thermal equilibrium, but the converse is not always true.
 thermal radiation
 thermionic emission
 thermodynamic equilibrium
 thermodynamic free energy
 thermodynamics
 thermometer
 An instrument used to measure temperature.
 third law of thermodynamics
 threshold frequency
 torque
 The tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object.
 total internal reflection
 toughness
 The ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing. Material toughness is defined as the amount of energy per unit volume that a material can absorb before rupturing. It is also defined as the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed.
 trajectory
 The path that a moving object follows through space as a function of time.
 transducer
 transmission medium
 transverse wave
 trigonometry
 A branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides.
 trimean
 triple point
 The temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of a given substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.
 truncated mean
U[edit]
 uncertainty principle
 Any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously.
 uniform motion
 uniform circular motion
 unit vector
 utility frequency
 The frequency of the oscillations of alternating current (AC) in an electric power grid transmitted from a power plant to the enduser.
V[edit]
 vacuum
 An area of space which contains no matter.
 valence electron
 An electron that is associated with an atom and can participate in the formation of a chemical bond.
 valence shell
 The outermost electron shell of an atom.
 valley of stability
 Van de Graaff generator
 variable capacitor
 variable resistor
 vector
 Any quantity that has both magnitude and direction.
 vector space
 A mathematical structure formed by a collection of elements called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers called scalars.
 velocity
 virtual image
 virtual particle
 viscoelasticity
 viscosity
 visible light
 A form of electromagnetic radiation generally defined as the range of wavelengths visible to the average human eye.
 volt (V)
 The SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force, defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those two points.
 Volta potential
 voltage
 voltmeter
 An instrument used for measuring the difference in electrical potential between two points in an electric circuit. Analog voltmeters move a pointer across a scale in proportion to the voltage of the circuit.
 volt per meter
 volume
W[edit]
 W and Z bosons
 watt (W)
 A derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI) defined as one joule per second. The watt measures the rate of energy conversion or transfer.
 wave
 A disturbance or oscillation that travels through spacetime accompanied by a transfer of energy.
 wave equation
 wave function
 wave function collapse
 wave–particle duality
 wavelength
 A measure of the distance traversed by a single spatial period of a sinusoidal wave, i.e. the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
 weak interaction
 One of the four fundamental forces of nature, along with the strong nuclear force, electromagnetism, and gravitation. It is responsible for the radioactive decay of subatomic particles and initiates the process known as hydrogen fusion in stars.
 weber (Wb)
 wedge
 A triangular round tool in the form a compound and portable inclined plane; one of six classical simple machines.
 weight
 wheel and axle
 A wheel attached to an axle so that these two parts rotate together in which a force is transferred from one to the other; one of six classical simple machines.
 white body
 A hypothetical idealized physical body that reflects all incident electromagnetic radiation completely and uniformly in all directions; the opposite of a black body.
 wind
 The flow of gases on a large scale.
 wind shear
 A difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere. Wind shear can be broken down into vertical and horizontal components, with horizontal wind shear seen across fronts and near the coast, and vertical shear typically near the surface, though also at higher levels in the atmosphere.
 work
 work function
X[edit]
 Xray
 A highenergy photon (between 100 eV and 100 keV) with a wavelength shorter than that of ultraviolet radiation and longer than that of gamma radiation.
Y[edit]
 Young’s modulus
 A measure of the stiffness of a solid material which defines the relationship between mechanical stress and strain.
Z[edit]
 Zeeman effect
 The effect of splitting a spectral line into several components in the presence of a static magnetic field by the lifting of degeneracy in electronic states.
See also[edit]
 Outline of physics
 Index of physics articles
 Glossary of areas of mathematics
 Glossary of astronomy
 Glossary of biology
 Glossary of calculus
 Glossary of chemistry terms
 Glossary of engineering
 Glossary of probability and statistics
References[edit]
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 ^ Scharping, Nathaniel (18 October 2017). "Gravitational Waves Show How Fast The Universe is Expanding". Astronomy. Retrieved 18 October 2017.
 ^ Weaver, Donna; Villard, Ray (11 March 2018). "Measuring universe expansion reveals mystery – Is something unpredicted going on in the depths of space?". Earth & Sky. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
 ^ "Is the universe expanding faster than the speed of light?".
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 ^ Bailyn, M. (1994). A Survey of Thermodynamics. New York, NY: American Institute of Physics Press. p. 21. ISBN 0883187973.
 ^ Daniel Malacara, Zacarias Malacara, Handbook of optical design. Page 379
 ^ Green, Daniel W. E. 1992. Magnitude Corrections for Atmospheric Extinction. International Comet Quarterly 14, July 1992, 55–59.
 ^ Crecraft, David; Gorham, David (2003). Electronics, 2nd Ed. CRC Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780748770366.
 ^ Agarwal, Anant; Lang, Jeffrey (2005). Foundations of Analog and Digital Electronic Circuits. Morgan Kaufmann. p. 331. ISBN 9780080506814.
 ^ Glisson, Tildon H. (2011). Introduction to Circuit Analysis and Design. Springer Science and Business Media. ISBN 9789048194438.
 ^ "Angular Velocity and Acceleration". Theory.uwinnipeg.ca. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2015.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Cummings, Karen; Halliday, David (2007). Understanding physics. New Delhi: John Wiley & Sons Inc., authorized reprint to Wiley  India. pp. 449, 484, 485, 487. ISBN 9788126508822.(UP1)
 ^ Holzner, Steven (2006). Physics for Dummies. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley Publishing Inc. p. 201. ISBN 9780764554339.
 ^ "Antimatter". Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Archived from the original on 23 August 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2008.
 ^ "The Standard Model – Particle decays and annihilations". The Particle Adventure: The Fundamentals of Matter and Force. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
 ^ "What is buoyant force?". Khan Academy.

^ RESOLUTION B2 on the redefinition of the astronomical unit of length (PDF), Beijing, China: International Astronomical Union, 31 August 2012,
The XXVIII General Assembly of International Astronomical Union … recommends … 5. that the unique symbol "au" be used for the astronomical unit.

^ "Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Instructions for Authors". Oxford Journals. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
The units of length/distance are Å, nm, µm, mm, cm, m, km, au, lightyear, pc.
 ^ "Manuscript Preparation: AJ & ApJ Author Instructions". American Astronomical Society. Retrieved 29 October 2016. Use standard abbreviations for ... natural units (e.g., au, pc, cm).
 ^ ISO 800003, Quantities and units – Space and time

^ RESOLUTION B2 on the redefinition of the astronomical unit of length (PDF), Beijing: International Astronomical Union, 31 August 2012,
The XXVIII General Assembly of International Astronomical Union recommends [adopted] that the astronomical unit be redefined to be a conventional unit of length equal to exactly 149,597,870,700 metres, in agreement with the value adopted in IAU 2009 Resolution B2
 ^ Gere, J.M.; Timoshenko, S.P. (1996), Mechanics of Materials:Forth edition, Nelson Engineering, ISBN 0534934293
 ^ Beer, F.; Johnston, E.R. (1984), Vector mechanics for engineers: statics, McGraw Hill, pp. 62–76
 ^ Clancy, L.J. (1975). Aerodynamics. Wiley. ISBN 9780470158371.
 ^ Batchelor, G.K. (2000). An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521663960.
 ^ Irwin, D. (2002). Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis, page 274. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.