Generalplan Ost

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Generalplan Ost
Master Plan for the East
Generalplan Ost-en.svg
Plan of new German settlement colonies (marked with dots and diamonds), drawn up by the Friedrich Wilhelm University Institute of Agriculture in Berlin, 1942, covering the Baltic states, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine and Crimea

Duration 1941–1945
Location Territories controlled by Nazi Germany
Type Genocide and Ethnic cleansing
Cause Lebensraum and Heim ins Reich
Patron(s) Adolf Hitler

The Generalplan Ost (German pronunciation: [ɡenəˈʁaːlˌplaːn ˈɔst]; English: Master Plan for the East), abbreviated GPO, was the Nazi German government's plan for the genocide[1] and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale, and colonization of Central and Eastern Europe by Germans. It was to be undertaken in territories occupied by Germany during World War II. The plan was attempted during the war, resulting indirectly and directly in millions of deaths of ethnic Slavs by shootings, starvation, disease, or extermination through labor. But its full implementation was not considered practicable during the major military operations, and was prevented by Germany's defeat.[2][3][4]

The program operational guidelines were based on the policy of Lebensraum designed by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party in fulfilment of the Drang nach Osten (drive to the East) ideology of German expansionism. As such, it was intended to be a part of the New Order in Europe.[5]

The master plan was a work in progress. There are four known versions of it, developed as time went on. After the invasion of Poland, the original blueprint for Generalplan Ost (GPO) was discussed by the RKFDV in mid-1940 during the Nazi–Soviet population transfers. The second known version of GPO was procured by the RSHA from Erhard Wetzel [de] in April 1942. The third version was officially dated June 1942. The final settlement master plan for the East came in from the RKFDV on October 29, 1942. However, after the German defeat at Stalingrad planning of the colonization in the East was suspended, and the program was gradually abandoned.[6] The planning had nonetheless included implementation cost estimates, which ranged from 40 to 67 billion Reichsmarks, the latter figure being close to Germany’s entire GDP for 1941.[7] A cost estimate of 45.7 billion Reichsmarks was included in the spring 1942 version of the plan in which more than half the expenditure was to be allocated to land remediation, agricultural development and transport infrastructure. This aspect of the funding was to be provided directly from state sources and the remainder, for urban and industrial development projects, was to be raised on commercial terms.[8]

Development and reconstruction of the plan[edit]

The body responsible for the Generalplan Ost was the SS's Reich Main Security Office (RSHA) under Heinrich Himmler, which commissioned the work. The document was revised several times between June 1941 and spring 1942 as the war in the east progressed successfully. It was a strictly confidential proposal whose content was known only to those at the top level of the Nazi hierarchy; it was circulated by RSHA to the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Ostministerium) in early 1942.[9]

According to testimony of SS-Standartenführer Dr. Hans Ehlich (one of the witnesses before the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials), the original version of the plan was drafted in 1940. As a high official in the RSHA, Ehlich was the man responsible for the drafting of Generalplan Ost along with Dr. Konrad Meyer, Chief of the Planning Office of Himmler's Reich Commission for the Strengthening of Germandom. It had been preceded by the Ostforschung.[9]

Hess and Himmler visit a VoMi display of proposed rural German settlements in the East, March 1941.

The preliminary versions were discussed by Heinrich Himmler and his most trusted colleagues even before the outbreak of war. This was mentioned by SS-Obergruppenführer Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski during his evidence as a prosecution witness in the trial of officials of the Race and Settlement Main Office (RuSHA). According to Bach-Zelewski, Himmler stated openly: "It is a question of existence, thus it will be a racial struggle of pitiless severity, in the course of which 20 to 30 million Slavs and Jews will perish through military actions and crises of food supply."[9] A fundamental change in the plan was introduced on June 24, 1941 – two days after the start of Operation Barbarossa – when the 'solution' to the Jewish question ceased to be part of that particular framework gaining a lethal, autonomous priority.[9]

Nearly all the wartime documentation on Generalplan Ost was deliberately destroyed shortly before Germany's defeat in May 1945,[10][11] and the full proposal has never been found, though several documents refer to it or supplement it. Nonetheless, most of the plan's essential elements have been reconstructed from related memos, abstracts and other documents.[12]

A major document which enabled historians to accurately reconstruct the Generalplan Ost was a memorandum released on April 27, 1942, by Erhard Wetzel, director of the NSDAP Office of Racial Policy, entitled "Opinion and thoughts on the master plan for the East of the Reichsführer SS".[13] Wetzel's memorandum was a broad elaboration of the Generalplan Ost proposal.[14][12] It came to light only in 1957.[15]

The extermination document for the Slavic people of Eastern Europe did survive the war and has been quoted by Yale historian Timothy Snyder in 2010 and shows ethnic Poles were the primary target of Generalplan OST.[16]

Phases of the plan and its implementation[edit]

Slavic groups

targeted for extermination by the Nazis

Percentages of ethnic groups to be eliminated. According to Generalplan Ost[17][16]
Poles[17][16] 80-85%
Ukrainians[17][16] 65%
Belarusians[17][16] 75%
Russians[17][16] 50-60%
Czechs[17][16] 50%
Europe, with pre-WW2 borders, showing the extension of the Generalplan Ost master plan.
LEGEND: Dark grey – Germany (Deutsches Reich). Dotted black line – the extension of a detailed plan of the "second phase of settlement" (zweite Siedlungsphase). Light grey – planned territorial scope of the Reichskommissariat administrative units; their names in blue are Ostland (1941-1945), Ukraine (1941-1944), Moskowien (never realized), and Kaukasien (never realized).

Generalplan Ost (GPO) (English: Master Plan East) was a secret Nazi German plan for the colonization of Central and Eastern Europe.[18] Implementing it would have necessitated genocide[19] and ethnic cleansing on a vast scale to be undertaken in the European territories occupied by Germany during World War II. It would have included the extermination of most Slavic people in Europe. The plan, prepared in the years 1939-1942, was part of Adolf Hitler's and the Nazi movement's Lebensraum policy and a fulfilment of the Drang nach Osten (English: Drive towards the East) ideology of German expansion to the east, both of them part of the larger plan to establish the New Order.

The final version of the Generalplan Ost proposal was divided into two parts; the "Small Plan" (Kleine Planung), which covered actions carried out in the course of the war; and the "Big Plan" (Grosse Planung), which described steps to be taken gradually over a period of 25 to 30 years after the war was won. Both plans entailed the policy of ethnic cleansing.[12][20] As of June 1941, the policy envisaged the deportation of 31 million Slavs to Siberia.[9]

The Generalplan Ost proposal offered various percentages of the conquered or colonized people who were targeted for removal and physical destruction; the net effect of which would be to ensure that the conquered territories would become German. In ten years' time, the plan effectively called for the extermination, expulsion, Germanization or enslavement of most or all East and West Slavs living behind the front lines of East-Central Europe. The "Small Plan" was to be put into practice as the Germans conquered the areas to the east of their pre-war borders. In this way the plan for Poland was drawn up at the end of November 1939 and is probably responsible for much of the World War II expulsion of Poles by Germany (first to colonial district of the General Government and, from 1942 also to Polenlager).[21] After the war, under the "Big Plan", Generalplan Ost Many people of eastern Europe were to be affected by it. [22][23][10] [12] In their place up to 10 million of Germans would be settled in an extended "living space" (Lebensraum). Because the number of Germans appeared to be insufficient to populate the vast territories of Central and Eastern Europe, the peoples judged to lie racially between the Germans and the Russians (Mittelschicht), namely, Latvians and even Czechs, were also supposed to be resettled there.[24]

Prisoners of the Krychów forced labor camp dig irrigation ditches for the new German latifundia of the General Plan East in 1940. Most of them, Polish Jews and some Roma people, were sent to Sobibór extermination camp afterwards.[25]

According to Nazi intentions, attempts at Germanization were to be undertaken only in the case of those foreign nationals in Central and Eastern Europe who could be considered a desirable element for the future Reich from the point of view of its racial theories. The Plan stipulated that there were to be different methods of treating particular nations and even particular groups within them. Attempts were even made to establish the basic criteria to be used in determining whether a given group lent itself to Germanization. These criteria were to be applied more liberally in the case of nations whose racial material (rassische Substanz) and level of cultural development made them more suitable than others for Germanization. The Plan considered that there were a large number of such elements among the Baltic states. Erhard Wetzel felt that thought should be given to a possible Germanization of the whole of the Estonian nation and a sizable proportion of the Latvians. On the other hand, the Lithuanians seemed less desirable since "they contained too great an admixture of Slav blood." Himmler's view was that "almost the whole of the Lithuanian nation would have to be deported to the East".[23] Himmler is described to even have had a positive attitude towards germanizing the populations of Alsace-Lorraine, border areas of Slovenia (Upper Carniola and Southern Styria) and Bohemia-Moravia, but not Lithuania, claiming its population to be of "inferior race"[26].

Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia were to be deprived of their statehood, while their territories were to be included in the area of German settlement. This meant that Latvia and especially Lithuania would be covered by the deportation plans, though in a somewhat milder form than the expulsion of Slavs to western Siberia. While the Estonians would be spared from repressions and physical liquidation (that the Jews and the Poles were experiencing), in the long term the Nazi planners did not foresee their existence as independent entitites and they would be deported as well, with eventual denationalisation; initial designs were for Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia to be Germanized within 25 years, however Heinrich Himmler revised them to 20 years.[27]

Nazi propaganda poster of the Third Reich in 1939 (dark grey) after the conquest of Poland. It depicts pockets of German colonists resettling into Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany from Soviet controlled territories during the "Heim ins Reich" action. The outline of Poland (here superimposed in red) was missing from the original poster.[28]

In 1941 it was decided to destroy the Polish nation completely and the German leadership decided that in 15–20 years the Polish state under German occupation was to be fully cleared of any ethnic Poles and settled by German colonists.[29]:32 A majority of them, now deprived of their leaders and most of their intelligentsia (through mass murder, destruction of culture, the ban on education above the absolutely basic level, and kidnapping of children for Germanization), would have to be deported to regions in the East and scattered over as wide an area of Western Siberia as possible. According to the plan this would result in their assimilation by the local populations, which would cause the Poles to vanish as a nation.[24]

According to plan, by 1952 only about 3–4 million 'non-Germanized' Poles (all of them peasants) were to be left residing in the former Poland. Those of them who would still not Germanize were to be forbidden to marry, the existing ban on any medical help to Poles in Germany would be extended, and eventually Poles would cease to exist. Experiments in mass sterilization in concentration camps may also have been intended for use on the populations.[30] The Wehrbauer, or soldier-peasants, would be settled in a fortified line to prevent civilization reanimating beyond the Ural Mountains and threatening Germany.[31] "Tough peasant races" would serve as a bulwark against attack[32] — however, it was not very far east of the "frontier" that the westernmost reaches within continental Asia of the Third Reich's major Axis partner, Imperial Japan's own Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere would have existed, had a complete defeat of the Soviet Union occurred.

The seizure of food supplies in Ukraine brought about starvation, as it was intended to do to depopulate that region for German settlement.[33] Soldiers were told to steel their hearts against starving women and children, because every bit of food given to them was stolen from the German people, endangering their nourishment.[34]

Execution of Polish intelligentsia during the mass murders in Piaśnica

Widely varying policies were envisioned by the creators of Generalplan Ost, and some of them were actually implemented by Germany in regards to the different Slavic territories and ethnic groups. For example, by August–September 1939 (Operation Tannenberg followed by the A-B Aktion in 1940), Einsatzgruppen death squads and concentration camps had been employed to deal with the Polish elite, while the small number of Czech intelligentsia were allowed to emigrate overseas. Parts of Poland were annexed by Germany early in the war (leaving aside the rump German-controlled General Government and the areas previously annexed by the Soviet Union), while the other territories were officially occupied by or allied to Germany (for example, the Slovak part of Czechoslovakia became a theoretically independent puppet state, while the ethnic-Czech parts of the Czech lands (so excluding the Sudetenland) became a "protectorate"). The plan was partially attempted during the war, resulting indirectly and directly in millions of deaths of ethnic Slavs by starvation, disease, or extermination through labor.[4] The majority of Germany's 12 million forced laborers were abducted from Eastern Europe, mostly in the Soviet territories and Poland.[35]

One of the indictment charges at the trial of Adolf Eichmann, the S.S. officer responsible for the transportation aspects of the Final Solution, was that he was responsible for the deportation of 500,000 Poles. Eichmann was convicted on all 15 counts.[36] Poland's Supreme National Tribunal stated that "the wholesale extermination was first directed at Jews and also at Poles and had all the characteristics of genocide in the biological meaning of this term."[37]

Civilian death toll in Poland and the Soviet Union[edit]

Mass murder of Soviet civilians near Minsk, 1943

Around six million Polish citizens perished during World War II: about one fifth of the pre-war population.[38] The official Polish government report on war damages prepared in 1947 put Poland's war dead at 6,028,000; 3.0 million ethnic Poles and 3.0 million Jews not including losses of Polish citizens from the Ukrainian and Belarusian ethnic groups. This figure was disputed when the communist system collapsed by the Polish historian Czesław Łuczak who put total losses at 6.0 million; 3.0 million Jews, 2.0 million ethnic Poles, and 1.0 million Polish citizens from the other ethnic groups not included in the 1947 report on war damages.[39][40] In 2009 the Polish government-affiliated Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) published the study "Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami" (Poland 1939-1945. Human Losses and Victims of Repression Under the Two Occupations) that estimated Poland's war dead at between 5.6 and 5.8 million Poles and Jews, including 150,000 during the Soviet occupation.[41] Poland's losses by geographic area include about 3.5 million within the borders of present-day Poland, and about two million in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.[42] Contemporary Russian sources include Poland's losses in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union with Soviet war dead[43] In Poland this is viewed as inflating Soviet casualties at Poland's expense. Today's scholars of independent Poland believe that 1.8 to 1.9 million Polish civilians (non-Jews) and 3 million Polish Jews were victims of German Occupation policies and the war."[44]

A victim of starvation in besieged Leningrad, 1941

A 1995 paper published by the M.V. Philimoshin, an associate of the Russian Defense Ministry, put the civilian death toll in the regions occupied by Germany at 13.7 million. Philimoshin cited sources from Soviet era to support his figures and used the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to deaths of 7.4 million civilians caused by direct, intentional violence. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war account for a major portion.[45] Philimoshin estimated that civilian forced laborer deaths in Germany totaled 2.1 million . Germany had a policy of forced confiscation of food that resulted in famine deaths of an estimated 6% of the population or 4.1 million.[46] Russian government sources currently cite these civilian casualty figures in their official statements[47]

Civilian losses include deaths in the siege of Leningrad. According to David Glantz the 1945 Soviet estimate presented at the Nuremberg Trials was 642,000 civilian deaths. He noted that Soviet era source from 1965 put the number of dead in the Siege of Leningrad at "greater than 800,000" and that a Russian source from 2000 put the number of dead at 1,000,000.[48] Other Russian historians put the Leningrad death toll at between 1.4 and 2.0 million.[49]

These casualties are for 1941–1945 within the 1946–1991 borders of the USSR.[50] Included with civilian losses are deaths in the territories annexed by the USSR in 1939–1940 including 600,000 in the Baltic states[51] and 1,500,000 in Eastern Poland, 500,000 of the 1,500,000 are Ethnic Poles in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.[52]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "As a matter of fact, Hitler wanted to commit Genocide against the Slavic peoples, in order to colonize the East" Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History by A. Dirk Moses, Berghahn Books, 2008, page 20
  2. ^ WISSENSCHAFT - PLANUNG - VERTREIBUNG. Der Generalplan Ost der Nationalsozialisten· Eine Ausstellung der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft © 2006
  3. ^ Dietrich Eichholtz»Generalplan Ost« zur Versklavung osteuropäischer Völker. PDF file, direct download.
  4. ^ a b Yad Vashem. "Generalplan Ost" (PDF).
  5. ^ "Lebensraum". Retrieved 2019-06-23.
  6. ^ "Generalplan Ost (General Plan East). The Nazi evolution in German foreign policy. Documentary sources". World Future Fund.
  7. ^ Tooze, Adam (2007) The Wages of Destruction p. 472 ISBN 978-0-141-00348-1
  8. ^ Tooze p. 473
  9. ^ a b c d e Browning (2007), pp. 240–1
  10. ^ a b Schmuhl, Hans-Walter (2008). The Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics, 1927–1945. Crossing boundaries. Boston Studies in the Philosophy and History of Science. 259. Springer Netherlands. pp. 348–9. ISBN 978-90-481-7678-6.
  11. ^ Poprzeczny, Joseph (2004). Odilo Globocnik, Hitler's Man in the East. McFarland. p. 186. ISBN 0-7864-1625-4.
  12. ^ a b c d Gellately, Robert (1996). "Reviewed Works: Vom Generalplan Ost zum Generalsiedlungsplan by Czeslaw Madajczyk; Der 'Generalplan Ost'. Hauptlinien der nationalsozialistischen Planungs- und Vernichtungspolitik by Mechtild Rössler, Sabine Schleiermacher". Central European History. 29 (2): 270–274. doi:10.1017/S0008938900013170. JSTOR 4546609. References: Madajczyk (1994); Rössler & Scheiermacher (1993).
  13. ^ Wetzel (1942).
  14. ^ Weiss-Wendt, Anton (2010). Eradicating Differences: The Treatment of Minorities in Nazi-Dominated Europe. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 69. ISBN 978-1443824491.
  15. ^ Madajczyk (1962).
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Snyder, Timothy (2010). Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books. p. 160.
  17. ^ a b c d e f Pinfield, Nicholas, author. (17 December 2015). Democracy and Nazism : Germany, 1918-1945. p. 173. ISBN 978-1-107-57316-1. OCLC 933210824.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  18. ^ "Wissenschaft, Planung, Vertreibung - Der Generalplan Ost der Nationalsozialisten". Eine Ausstellung der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) (in German). 2006.
  19. ^ Eichholtz, Dietrich (September 2004). ""Generalplan Ost" zur Versklavung osteuropäischer Völker" [Generalplan Ost for the enslavment of East European peoples] (downloadable PDF). Utopie Kreativ (in German). 167: 800–8 – via Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung.
  20. ^ Madajczyk, Czesław (1980). "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte. Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse" [Occupation modalities of the Axis powers. A possible comparative analysis]. Studia Historiae Oeconomicae. 14: 105–22. See also Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Ueberschär, Gerd R., eds. (2008). Hitler's War in the East, 1941-1945: A Critical Assessment. Berghahn. ISBN 978-1-84545-501-9. Google Books.
  21. ^ Tomaszewski, Irene; Werbowski, Tecia (2010). Code Name Żegota: Rescuing Jews in Occupied Poland, 1942–1945. ABC-CLIO. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-313-38391-5. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
  22. ^ Misiunas, Romuald J.; Taagepera, Rein (1993). The Baltic States: Years of Dependence, 1940-80. University of California Press. pp. 48–9. ISBN 978-052008228-1.
  23. ^ a b Gumkowski, Janusz; Leszczynski, Kazimierz (1961). Poland under Nazi Occupation. Warsaw: Polonia Publishing House. OCLC 456349. See excerpts in "Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe". Holocaust Awareness Committee - History Department, Northeastern University. Archived from the original on 2011-11-25.
  24. ^ a b Connelly, J. (1999). "Nazis and Slavs: From Racial Theory to Racist Practice". Central European History. 32 (1): 1–33. doi:10.1017/S0008938900020628. JSTOR 4546842. PMID 20077627.
  25. ^ "Obozy pracy na terenie Gminy Hańsk" [Labor camps in Gmina Hańsk] (in Polish). Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  26. ^ Heinemann, Isabel (1999). Rasse, Siedlung, deutsches Blut. Das Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt der SS und die rassenpolitische Neuordnung Europas. Wallstein Verlag. p. 370. ISBN 3892446237.
  27. ^ Raun,Toivo U. (2002). Estonia and the Estonians (2nd updated ed.). Stanford CA: Hoover Institution Press. pp. 160–4. ISBN 0817928537.
  28. ^ Nicholas, Lynn H. (2011). Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web. Knopf Doubleday. p. 194. ISBN 978-0307793829.
  29. ^ Berghahn, Volker R. (1999). "Germans and Poles 1871–1945". In Bullivant, K.; Giles,G.J.; Pape, W. (eds.). Germany and Eastern Europe: Cultural Identities and Cultural Differences. Rodopi. pp. 15–34. ISBN 9042006889.
  30. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II Leaders. Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-052185254-8.
  31. ^ Cecil, Robert (1972). The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology. New York City: Dodd, Mead & Co. p. 19. ISBN 0-396-06577-5.
  32. ^ Sontheimer, Michael (27 May 2011). "When We Finish, Nobody Is Left Alive". Spiegel Online.
  33. ^ Berkhoff (2004), p. 45.
  34. ^ Berkhoff (2004), p. 166.
  35. ^ "Wayback Machine" (PDF). 2015-08-24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-24. Retrieved 2019-08-08.
  36. ^ Korbonski, Stefan (1981). The Polish Underground State: A Guide to the Underground, 1939-1945. Hippocrene Books. pp. 120, 137–8. ISBN 978-088254517-2.
  37. ^ Law-Reports of Trials of War Criminals, The United Nations War Crimes Commission, volume VII, London, His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1948, Case no. 37: The Trial of Hauptsturmführer Amon Leopold Goeth, p. 9: "The Tribunal accepted these contentions and in its Judgment against Amon Goeth stated the following: 'His criminal activities originated from general directives that guided the criminal Fascist-Hitlerite organization, which under the leadership of Adolf Hitler aimed at the conquest of the world and at the extermination of those nations, which stood in the way of the consolidation of its power.... The policy of extermination was in the first place directed against the Jewish and Polish nations.... This criminal organization did not reject any means of furthering their aim of destroying the Jewish nation. The wholesale extermination of Jews and also of Poles had all the characteristics of genocide in the biological meaning of this term.'"
  38. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1998). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947. McFarland. p. 305. ISBN 9780786403714.
  39. ^ Łuczak (1994) Pages 9-14.
  40. ^ Materski and Szarota page 16.
  41. ^ Materski and Szarota. Page 9.
  42. ^ Krystyna Kersten, Szacunek strat osobowych w Polsce Wschodniej. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI- 1994 p. 47.
  43. ^ Андреев, Е.М (Andreev, EM), et al., Население Советского Союза: 1922-1991(Naselenie Sovetskogo Soiuza, 1922–1991). Moscow, Наука (Nauka), 1993. ISBN 5-02-013479-1. Pp. 73-79, Soviet losses of 26.6 million are calculated for the USSR population in mid-1941 within the borders of 1946-1991.
  44. ^ "Polish Resistance and Conclusions — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  45. ^ Евдокимов 1995, pp. 124–131 Philimoshin, M. V. Liudskie poteri SSSR v period vtoroi mirovoi voiny:sbornik statei (About the results of calculation of losses among civilian population of the USSR and Russian Federation 1941–1945).
  46. ^ Евдокимов, Ростислав (1995). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: сборник статей (in Russian). Изд-во Русско-Балтийский информационный центр "БЛИЦ". pp. 124–131. ISBN 9785867890230.
  47. ^ "Потери гражданского населения". Retrieved 2019-08-07.
  48. ^ David M. Glantz, Siege of Leningrad 1941 1944 Cassell 2001 ISBN 978-1-4072-2132-8 p.320.
  49. ^ "Rybakovsky, L L" (PDF).
  50. ^ Lutz, Wolfgang; Scherbov, Sergei; Volkov, Andrei (2002-09-11). Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991. Routledge. ISBN 9781134853205.
  51. ^ Эрлихман, Вадим (2004). Потери народонаселения в 20. веке (in Russian). Русская панорама. ISBN 9785931651071.
  52. ^ Łuczak, Czesław. Szanse i trudnosci bilansu demograficznego Polski w latach 1939–1945. Dzieje Najnowsze Rocznik XXI. 1994. The losses in the former Polish eastern regions are also included in Poland's total war dead of 5.6 to 5.8 million. 500,000 of the 1,500,000 are Ethnic Poles in the Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union pages on Table 4.

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Primary source[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Bakoubayi Billy, Jonas: Musterkolonie des Rassenstaats: Togo in der kolonialpolitischen Propaganda und Planung Deutschlands 1919-1943, J.H.Röll-Verlag, Dettelbach 2011, ISBN 978-3-89754-377-5. (in German)
  • Eichholtz, Dietrich. "Der Generalplan Ost." Über eine Ausgeburt imperialistischer Denkart und Politik, Jahrbuch für Geschichte, Volume 26, 1982. (in German)
  • Heiber, Helmut. "Der Generalplan Ost." Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, Volume 3, 1958. (in German)
  • Kamenetsky, Ihor (1961). Secret Nazi Plans for Eastern Europe: A Study of Lebensraum Policies. New York City: Bookman Associates.
  • Madajczyk, Czesław. Die Okkupationspolitik Nazideutschlands in Polen 1939-1945, Cologne, 1988. OCLC 473808120 (in German)
  • Madajczyk, Czesław. Generalny Plan Wschodni: Zbiór dokumentów, Główna Komisja Badania Zbrodni Hitlerowskich w Polsce, Warszawa, 1990. OCLC 24945260 (in Polish)
  • Roth, Karl-Heinz, "Erster Generalplan Ost." (April/May 1940) von Konrad Meyer, Dokumentationsstelle zur NS-Sozialpolitik, Mittelungen, Volume 1, 1985. (in German)
  • Szcześniak, Andrzej Leszek. Plan Zagłady Słowian. Generalplan Ost, Polskie Wydawnictwo Encyklopedyczne, Radom, 2001. ISBN 8388822039 OCLC 54611513 (in Polish)
  • Wildt, Michael. "The Spirit of the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA)." Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions (2005) 6#3 pp. 333–349. Full article available with purchase.

External links[edit]