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Guillaume (right) with West German chancellor Willy Brandt, 1972–1974
February 1, 1927|
|Died||April 10, 1995
Parkfriedhof Marzahn [de]
|Occupation||Intelligence agent; secretary of West German chancellor Willy Brandt|
|Known for||Infiltration of West German government|
|Criminal penalty||13 years in prison|
|Criminal status||Pardoned 1 October 1981|
|Children||Pierre Boom [de]|
Günter Guillaume (1 February 1927 – 10 April 1995), was an intelligence agent for East Germany's secret service, the Stasi, in West Germany. Guillaume became West German chancellor Willy Brandt's secretary, and his discovery as a spy led to Brandt's downfall in the Guillaume affair.
Günter Karl Heinz Guillaume was born on 1 February 1927 at 31 Choriner Straße in Prenzlauer Berg, a working-class district of Berlin. He was the only child of Karl Ernst Guillaume, a pianist who played in bars and theatres, where he provided background music for silent films, and Johanna Old Pauline née Loebe, a hairdresser. His parents, who had married four months before Günter's birth, were both native to Berlin. Due to the combination of the Great Depression and the introduction of sound films, the Guillaumes suffered financial hardship. These experiences made the extremist policies being presented by Adolf Hitler and Nazi Party attractive to Karl Guillaume, and he joined the party in March 1934.
In 1956, he and his wife Christel emigrated to West Germany on Stasi orders to penetrate and spy on West Germany's political system. Rising through the hierarchy of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, he became a close aide to West German chancellor Willy Brandt.
In 1974, West German authorities discovered that Guillaume was spying for the East German government. The resulting scandal, the Guillaume Affair, led to Brandt's resigning the chancellorship. On 15 December 1975, Guillaume was sentenced to 13 years in prison for treason; his wife, to eight years. In 1981, Guillaume was returned to East Germany in exchange for Western spies caught by the Eastern Bloc.
In East Germany, Guillaume was received and celebrated as a hero, worked as a spy trainer, and published his autobiography Die Aussage ("The Statement") in 1988. Two years before he married his second wife, nurse Elke Bröhl. Guillaume and East German spymaster Markus Wolf have said that Willy Brandt's downfall was not intended, and that the affair is among the Stasi's biggest mistakes. After Die Wende and German reunification, the reunified Germany granted Guillaume immunity from any further prosecutions. He was a supportive witness in Wolf's trial for treason in 1993.
Guillaume died of kidney cancer on 10 April 1995, in Petershagen/Eggersdorf, near Berlin. Guillaume's first wife died 20 March 2004.
The Brandt-Guillaume story is told in the play Democracy by Michael Frayn. It follows Brandt's political career as West Germany's first left-of-centre chancellor in 40 years, and his fall because of his assistant. It portrays Guillaume as in conflict by spying on Brandt while growing to admire him.
Notes and references
- "Guillaume: Wer war der Schurke?" [Guillaume: Who was that scoundrel?]. Der Spiegel (in German). Hamburg. 26 December 1988. pp. 14–21. Retrieved 2016-06-21.
- Michels 2013, p. 20.
- Adams, Jefferson (2014). Strategic Intelligence in the Cold War and Beyond. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 9781317637684.
- Die Aussage means The Statement, or My Stated View: Oxford Duden German Dictionary ISBN 0-19-864171-0)
- Craig R. Whitney (1995-04-12). "Gunter Guillaume, 68, Is Dead; Spy Caused Willy Brandt's Fall". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
- Michels, Eckar (2013). Guillaume, der Spion: eine deutsch-deutsche Karriere [Guillaume, the spy: a German-German career] (in German). Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. ISBN 978-3-86153-708-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- "Willy Brandt Biography: May 1974: Günter Guillaume". Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt Foundation. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2009-05-20.