Constitution of Mongolia

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Constitution of Mongolia
Original title Монгол Улсын
Үндсэн Хууль
Jurisdiction Mongolia
Ratified January 13, 1992
Date effective February 12, 1992
System Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
Branches Three
Head of state President
Chambers Unicameral
(State Great Khural)
Executive Prime Minister led cabinet
Judiciary Supreme Court
Federalism No
Electoral college No
First legislature July 21, 1992
First executive June 6, 1993 (President)
July 21, 1992 (PM)
Amendments 2
Last amended July 22, 2014
Location Ulaanbaatar
Commissioned by People's Great Khural
Supersedes Constitution of the Mongolian People's Republic
State emblem of Mongolia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of

Constitution of Mongolia (Mongolian: Монгол Улсын Үндсэн Хууль, Mongol Ulsīn Ündsen Húlĭ, "General Law of the Mongolian State") is the constitution of Mongolia.

It was adopted on January 13, 1992, put into force on February 12, and amended in 1999, 2001 and 2019[1]. The new constitution established a representative democracy in Mongolia, guaranteeing freedom of religion, rights, travel, expression, unalienable rights, government setup, election cycle, and other matters. It was written after the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 and dissolved the People's Republic of Mongolia. It consists of a preamble followed by six chapters divided into 70 articles.[2]

It is very close to and/or inspired by Western constitutions in terms of freedom of press, inalienable rights, freedom to travel, and other rights.

Previous constitutions had been adopted in 1924, 1940 and 1960.


Chapter One[edit]

Declares the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Mongolian state. Defines relationship between religion and state. Defines Mongolian emblem, flag, and anthem.[3]

Chapter Two[edit]

Specifies the civil, political, and human rights of the individual. Freedom of religion, of expression, of the press, the right to vote. Equality before the law. The right to Health care, education, and intellectual property. Also lists duties of the citizen, including paying taxes and serving in the armed forces.[4]

Chapter Three[edit]

Defines the structure of the legal system and form of the republic. Describes the structure of the government.

Chapter Four[edit]

Codifies the administrative districts of Mongolia and describes the relationship between national and local government.[4]

Chapter Five[edit]

Establishes a Constitutional Court to make rulings on interpretation of the constitution.[4]

Chapter Six[edit]

Describes the amendment process for changing the constitution.[4]

2019 Constitutional amendments[edit]

Mongolia has amended its constitution strengthening the powers of the prime minister in a bid to end years of political instability and economic stagnation[5]. With the amendments, presidential term has also been shortened to single 6-year term, which could take effect in 2020 allowing current President Khaltmaagiin Battulga to run for another term in 2021[6][7].

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Mongolia amends constitution in bid to end political instability". Reuters. 2019-11-16. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  2. ^ Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 38
  3. ^ Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 38-39
  4. ^ a b c d Montsame News Agency. Mongolia. 2006, ISBN 99929-0-627-8, p. 39
  5. ^ "Mongolia amends constitution in bid to end political instability". Reuters. 2019-11-16. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  6. ^ "Preserving the political status quo in Mongolia". East Asia Forum. 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2020-01-13.
  7. ^ "Welcome to President Battulga's rule in 2020s". Mongolia Weekly. Retrieved 2020-01-13.

Further reading[edit]

  • S. Narangerel, Legal System of Mongolia, Interpress, 2004

External links[edit]