14th century

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Mansa Musa I of Mali, described as the wealthiest individual in history
Europe in 1328
Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq, in the winter of 1397–1398, painting dated 1595–1600.
The successor states of the Mongol Empire in 1335: the Ilkhanate, Golden Horde, Yuan dynasty and Chagatai Khanate.

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. It is estimated that the century witness the death of more than 45 million lives. During this period, political and natural disasters were observed in both Europe and Mongol Empire, but the Islamic world's West Africa and Indian Subcontinent witnessed the rise of economic growth and prosperity.

In Europe, the Black Death claimed 25 million lives – wiping out one third of European society [1] – while England and France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.

In Asia, Tamerlane or Timur, established the Timurid Empire, a major Islamic territory in the Middle East and Central Asia and history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror, similar to his ancestor Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire. Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time. In India, the Islamic Bengal Sultanate was founded, a major trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with,[2] after its independence from the Delhi Sultanate. The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.

In Africa, the wealthy Mali Empire, a global leader of gold production, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of the medieval times, and according to various sources as history's ever.[3][4]

Events[edit]

Silver taka with a lion symbol
This 14th-century statue from Tamil Nadu, present day India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C..

1300s[edit]

1310s[edit]

1320s[edit]

1330s[edit]

1340s[edit]

The Hundred Years' War, Battle of Crécy between the English and French in 1346.

1350s[edit]

Burying coffins of Black Death victims in Tournai.

1360s[edit]

1370s[edit]

1380s[edit]

The Portuguese interregnum, Battle of Aljubarrota between the Portuguese and Castilians in 1385.

1390s[edit]

Significant people[edit]

Sultan Alauddin Khilji, ruler of most of India.
Guillaume de Machaut (at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s.

Artists[edit]

Architects[edit]

  • Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect and engineer
  • Henry Yevele, prominent English architect responsible for the building of many important structures in London (1320-1400)

Literary figures[edit]

Statue of Dante Alighieri at the Uffizi, Florence

Monarchs[edit]

Temür Khan (r. 1294-1307), known in Chinese as Emperor Chengzong of Yuan, ruler of the Chinese Yuan dynasty, a grandson of Kublai Khan and considered the sixth Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
Africa
  • Mansa Musa (d. 1337), King of the Mali Empire. During his reign Mali was the source of almost half the world's gold.
  • Amda Seyon I (13141344), Emperor of Ethiopia. Consolidated the power of his domain beyond the Ethiopian highlands, initiating a long era of Christian proselytization and integration of peripheral areas
Asia
Europe and Near East

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Black Death, Encyclopaedia Britannica
  2. ^ Nanda, J. N (2005). Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN 978-81-8069-149-2. Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
  3. ^ Thad Morgan, "This 14th-Century African Emperor Remains the Richest Person in History" Archived 2019-05-01 at the Wayback Machine, History.com, March 19, 2018
  4. ^ Davidson, Jacob (July 30, 2015). "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Time. Archived from the original on August 24, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
  5. ^ Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
  6. ^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 18
  7. ^ Kern, J.H.C., (1907), De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghapāça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
  8. ^ Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) [1973]. Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
  9. ^ Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7
  10. ^ Pound lock