1st South Carolina Rifle Regiment

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1st (Orr's) South Carolina Rifle Regiment
Flag of South Carolina.svg
Flag of South Carolina
Active July 20, 1861, to April 10, 1865
Country Confederate States of America
Allegiance CSA Dixie
Branch Infantry
Engagements

American Civil War

the Seven Days:
   * Beaver Dam Creek
   * Gaines' Mill
   * Frayser's Farm
Cedar Mountain
Manassas Station Ops
Second Manassas
Ox Hill
Harpers Ferry
Sharpsburg
Shepherdstown
Fredericksburg
Chancellorsville
Gettysburg
Bristoe Station
Mine Run
the Wilderness
Spotsylvania Court House
North Anna
Cold Harbor
Petersburg Siege
   * Jerusalem Plank Road
   * Fussell's Mill
   * Second Ream's Station
   * Peebles' Farm
   * Boydton Plank Road
   * Third Petersburg

Orr's Rifles was a South Carolina infantry regiment that served in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.

History[edit]

Formation[edit]

On 20 July 1861, James Lawrence Orr organized the First South Carolina Rifle Regiment at Sandy Springs. He was elected Colonel; J. Foster Marshall was elected Lt. Colonel, and Daniel A. Ledbetter, Major. Ten companies were recruited in the following districts (counties were known as districts between 1800 & 1868)...

Company: Nickname District Captain
A: "the Keowee Riflemen" Pickens J.W. Livingston
B: "McDuffie's Guards" Abbeville James Perrin
C: "the Mountain Boys" Pickens J.J. Norton
D: "Orr's Rifles" Anderson Frank E. Harrison
E: "the Oconee Riflemen" Pickens Miles M. Norton
F: "the Blue Ridge Rifles" Pickens Robert A. Hawthorne
G: "the Marshall Riflemen" Abbeville G. McDuffie Miller
H: "the Pee Dee Guards" Marion George M. Fairlee
I: not created
K: "the Marshall Guards" Anderson George W. Cox
L: "the Calhoun Guards" Anderson John B. Moore

The regiment had seen no action by the time Orr left, but the name "Orr's Rifles" stuck throughout the war.

Initial duty[edit]

First posted to Sullivan's Island, SC to defend Charleston Harbor, others called them the "Pound Cake Regiment" in reference to their "light" garrison duty. The 20th SC Infantry was referred to as the "Poundcake Brigade" on account of limited engagements and they were so close to home, their families could bring them poundcake or other treats.

Transfer to Virginia[edit]

In April 1862, the full-strength 1,000-man unit was transferred to Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia (ANV). In June, it was incorporated into Gregg's Brigade, of A.P. Hill's Light Division, of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson Corps (often termed the "Left Wing" early in the war).

Battles Not Included[edit]

The following actions fall into two categories: they are mentioned in various on-line sources, but are not yet sufficiently documented for inclusion in the template at right; or they are included, under a different name...

Glendale (VA - 30 June 1862) 
listed here as Frayser's Farm.
Second Bull Run (VA - 28-30 Aug. 1862) 
Usually called Second Manassas by Confederate sources.
Chantilly (VA - 1 Sept. 1862) 
Usually called Ox Hill by Confederate sources.
Antietam (MD - 17 Sept. 1862) 
Usually called Sharpsburg by Confederate sources.
Franklin's Crossing (VA - 5 June 1863) 
also called the Deep Run Battle, involved A. P. Hill's Corps, possibly including Orr's Rifles.
Falling Waters (MD - 14 July 1863) 
Apparently this action occurred during the retreat from Gettysburg, part of the Battle of Williamsport. Unfortunately, Wikipedia's article does not mention Orr's Rifles, nor the brigade, division, or corps to which it was subordinate.
CAVEAT Do not confuse this with the battle of the same name that took place on 2 July 1861.
Second Deep Bottom (VA - 14-20 Aug. 1864) 
Usually called Fussell's Mill by Confederate sources.
First Squirrel Level Road (VA - 30 Sept. 1864) 
This seems to be part of the Peebles' Farm which is also known as Poplar Springs Church. Could Jones Farm (VA - 30 Sept. 1864) and/or First Pegram's Farm (VA - 1 Oct. 1864) also be parts of this same battle?
Five Forks (VA - 1 April 1865) 
As with Falling Waters the Wikipedia article makes no mention of Orr's Rifles involvement in action to the west. Anyway, A.P. Hill was still holding the line at Petersburg when the breakthrough occurred on 2 April.
Appomattox Court House (VA - 9 April 1865) 
Orr's Rifles was surrendered at that locale, but probably did not take part in this battle, which was fought primarily by the Second Corps.

Surrender[edit]

Lee surrendered the ANV, including Orr's Rifles, at Appomattox Court House on 9 April 1865. After three years of combat, the regiment comprised 9 officers and 148 enlisted men.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Government document "Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, National Park Service".